This undertaking is based on the usage of engineering to better mathematics in secondary schools of Mauritius. It discusses about the assorted theories associated in the application of new agencies of communicating and teaching-learning mathematics, every bit good as the available technological tools and their applications. After much research work, this undertaking has been successfully completed and applied on a sample of ‘Lower six ‘ pupils.
Purpose OF THE STUDY
Mathematicss is a really of import topic at the primary and secondary educational degree. The capable finds its ain topographic point in all scientific disciplines, answerability, economic sciences and engineering. To be able to understand constructs or application of statistics in the latter topics, a good foundation in mathematics is extremely recommended. Besides, after completion of secondary instruction, a pupil is required to give grounds of a good analytical and numeracy skill through his/her mathematics consequences so as to measure up for a place for most of the field of the third instruction locally or overseas. Consequently, instructors and the school disposal should go forth no rock unturned in making an efficient teaching-learning environment and inducements for their pupils.
Mathematicss is a topic which has been regarded as being really hard by many pupils and parents. This stereotype manner of thought has acted as a demotivating factor and has lead to a ruin in the public presentation of pupils in mathematics, particularly in upper secondary categories ( Form 4 – Upper 6 ) . Many pupils take the topic as a load since it is a compulsory topic to their survey watercourse. Hence, Mathematics, including Additional Mathematics, is neglected ensuing in prep undone or incomplete and hapless public presentation in appraisals and tests.
Justification OF THE STUDY
At the start of every academic twelvemonth, tonss of job are faced by instructors and school disposal to convert pupils and explicate to them the importance of mathematics in their capable combination for Lower Six. Besides, after the first few hebdomads of following Additional Mathematics categories, many pupils wish to drop the topic, but since the topic is compulsory for scientific discipline, economic sciences and engineering watercourses, pupils find no option. This state of affairs arises because pupils are being exposed to more abstract mathematics than the basic. As a solution to this mathematics crisis, attempts have to be done to develop the educational psychological science and mathematical teaching method.
Technology is the tools or the ways used by persons to better the criterion of life or comfort of life in their civilisation. The childs of this epoch are extremely and easy fascinated by engineering. In other words, it can be said that it is the ‘fashion of engineering ‘ ; accordingly, engineering can be more easy used as a teaching-learning tools to accomplish educational ends.
Significance OF THE STUDY
The usage of engineering in learning mathematics will pull pupils towards wishing the topic, therefore actuating them to work harder, acquire a clearer apprehension of constructs, develop their physiological reaction, logical thought and problem-solving accomplishments, and better their public presentation as a whole in the topic.
Restriction OF THE STUDY
Despite all the theories and technological tools bing, it is really cheerless that due to confining resources, stuffs and finance in our educational system, it is really hard to use all outright. Besides, though engineering is making the society really fast, there are still households who can non afford to supply their kids with all technological installations. Therefore, kids from such households would experience really underprivileged if engineering is to the full applied to learning and larning. For case, these kids will be deprived if any computer-based or internet-based prep is given.
Hence, the undertaking is based on “ theoretical attack ” so that pupils interact “ on this scheme ” with the following “ learning activities ” aˆ¦ .
Summary OF THE CHAPTERS
( Yet to be written )
PSYCHOLOGY AND PEDAGOGY IN MATHEMATICS EDUCATION
Piaget and the acquisition of Mathematicss
Jean Piaget ( 1896 – 1980 ) was a Swiss developmental psychologist and philosopher known for his epistemic surveies with kids. He placed great importance on the instruction of kids. Piaget ‘s theory is a theory of rational development instead than a theory of acquisition, instruction, direction or course of study in general or with regard to mathematics in peculiar. But much authorship and many probes have been directed toward hypothesized deductions of Piaget ‘s theory for mathematics larning, learning and direction, for the nature and sequence of curricular content, and for schoolroom construction, organisation and direction. Besides, concerns have been expressed sing ways in which Piaget ‘s theory has been applied to different facets of instruction and mathematics.
Very frequently it has been suggested that certain Piagetian undertakings ( preservation undertakings, for case ) supply a good footing for finding pupils ‘ willingness for larning one facet or another of school mathematics. But Hiebert and Carpenter ( 1982 ) have indicated that the available research grounds suggests that Piagetian undertakings are non utile willingness steps. The hypothesis was that Piagetian undertakings can be used to place kids who would be unable to profit from direction in mathematics, but all the available grounds clearly suggested that the hypothesis was null. Alternatively, many kids who fail Piagetian undertakings are able to larn mathematical constructs and accomplishments.
Kirby and Biggs ( 1980 ) indicated that “ Cognition returned to psychological science in the sixtiess and flourished in the 1970s, pervading most countries of psychological science. Its metaphor, information processing, became dominant in that subject ” .
More straight to the point, Groen and Kieran ( 1983 ) pointed out that “ A few old ages ago, research on kids ‘s mathematics was dominated by Piaget. To many in the field, the undertaking was to widen Piaget ‘s theory or re-explain it. Information-processing theory, loosely conceived, has replaced the Piagetian model as a wide explanatory theoretical account. The significance of information-processing theory in cognitive development has grown at the same time with a retreat from the Piagetian model ” .
Within the contemporary context of cognitive scientific discipline, accent is placed upon understanding and comprehension. The acquisition of mathematics and research associated with such acquisition is more and more normally being described or explained in relation to a system that includes proviso for the consumption of information, for its digest within a on the job memory, and for interaction with other information stored within and retrieved from a long-run memory.
Latest research associated with the acquisition of mathematics is much more likely to concentrate upon persons than upon groups. It looks beyond discernible public presentation related to behavioural aims for its informations base. Romberg and Carpenter ( in imperativeness ) have indicated that “ internal cognitive procedures are acknowledged. Rational undertaking analysis, which is based on a logical analysis by experts, has evolved to empirical undertaking analysis, which focuses on what kids really do when they solve mathematics jobs ” . Some of this “ making ” may be discernible in a pupil ‘s expressed actions, but much of the “ making ” may be non merely footings of a pupil ‘s discernible but self-reportable thought.
The term metacognition refers to a individual ‘s consciousness of and sensitiveness to her or his ain idea procedures, and includes the ability to supervise and command such procedures to some grade. There is turning grounds that larning associated with job resolution is facilitated or enhanced by a pupil ‘s increased consciousness of metacognitive facets of the problem-solving procedure. Besides, there is grounds that some of the differences between expert and novitiate job convergent thinkers may be attributed to differences in metacognitive accomplishments.
Romberg and Carpenter ( in imperativeness ) believe that “ We presently know a great trade more about how kids learn mathematics than we know about how to use this cognition to mathematics direction. Research is clearly needed to research how cognition of kids ‘s acquisition of mathematics can be applied to the design of direction ” . Furthermore, “ Although the accent in research on acquisition has changed dramatically in the last 15 old ages, the connexion between theories of direction and theories of larning remains an issue ” .
Cognitive Guided Instruction
Cognitively Guided Instruction is a professional development plan based on an incorporate plan of research on
the development of pupils ‘ mathematical thought ;
direction that influences that development ;
instructors ‘ cognition and beliefs that influence their instructional pattern ;
the manner that instructors ‘ cognition, beliefs, and patterns are influenced by their apprehension of pupils ‘ mathematical thought.
CGI is an attack to learning mathematics instead than a curriculum plan. At the nucleus of this attack is the pattern of listening to kids ‘s mathematical thought and utilizing it as a footing for direction. Research based models of kids ‘s thought in the spheres of add-on and minus, generation and division, base-ten constructs, multi-digit operations, algebra, geometry and fractions provide counsel to instructors about listening to their pupils. Case surveies of instructors utilizing CGI have shown the most complete instructors use a assortment of patterns to widen kids ‘s mathematical thought. It is a belief of CGI that there is no 1 manner to implement the attack and that instructors ‘ professional judgement is cardinal to doing determinations about how to utilize information about kids ‘s thought.
The research foundation on kids ‘s mathematical thought upon which CGI is based shows that kids are able to work out jobs without direct direction by pulling upon informal cognition of mundane state of affairss. For illustration, a survey of kindergarten kids ( Carpenter, et al. , 1993 ) showed that immature kids can work out jobs affecting what are usually considered advanced mathematics such as generation, division, and multistep jobs, by utilizing direct mold. Direct mold is an attack to job resolution in which the kid, in the absence of more sophisticated cognition of mathematics, constructs a solution to a narrative job by patterning the action or construction.
The motive for larning
Another important premise sing the nature of the scholar concerns the degree and beginning of motive for larning. Harmonizing to Von Glasersfeld ( 1989 ) prolonging motive to larn is strongly dependent on the scholar ‘s assurance in his or her possible for larning. These feelings of competency and belief in possible to work out new jobs are derived from first-hand experience of command of jobs in the yesteryear and are much more powerful than any external recognition and motive. This links up with Vygotsky ‘s “ zone of proximal development ” , where scholars are challenged within close propinquity to their current degree of development. By sing the successful completion of disputing undertakings, scholars gain assurance and motive to ship on more complex challenges.
The term educational engineering is frequently associated with, and includes, instructional theory and larning theory. Educational engineering, besides known as e-learning, instructional engineering and larning engineering, is the usage of engineering to back up the acquisition procedure. It is an advanced manner to plan, present, ease, and manage direction for scholars of all ages, whether it is face-to-face in a schoolroom, online, or a combination of methods. While instructional engineering covers the procedures and systems of acquisition and direction, educational engineering includes other systems used in the procedure of developing human capableness. It includes, but is non limited to, package, hardware, every bit good as cyberspace applications and activities. Although engineering is widely used in the disposal, direction of instruction and in research, educational engineering is merely concerned with the impact of engineering on the acquisition procedure. In other words, engineering is used as a tool or support to present learning stuffs, to ease communicating and to supply appraisal and feedback. In this present information age, the demand for cognition is turning at a really fast rate taking to the outgrowth of e-learning at a much higher gait.
Some of the assorted types of engineerings which can be used in today ‘s traditional schoolrooms are:
With a computing machine in the schoolroom, a instructor would be able to show a new lesson, present new stuff, exemplify how to utilize new plans, and demo new web sites.
Class web site
In today ‘s society, kids know how to utilize the computing machine and voyage their manner through a web site.
Therefore, a category web page is an easy manner to expose pupils ‘ work. Once a web page is designed, the instructor can post prep assignments or other pupil plants.
Class web logs and wikis
Web logs allow pupils to keep a running duologue, such as a diary, ideas, thoughts, and assignments. They besides provide for pupil remark and contemplation. Wikis are more group focused to let multiple members of the group to redact a individual papers and make a genuinely collaborative and carefully edited finished merchandise.
Wireless schoolroom mikes
Noisy schoolrooms are a day-to-day happening, and with the aid of mikes, pupils are able to hear their instructors more clearly. Children learn better when they hear the instructor clearly. The benefit for instructors is that they no longer lose their voices at the terminal of the twenty-four hours.
Mobile devices such as clickers or smartphone can be used to heighten the experience in the schoolroom by supplying the possibility for professors to acquire feedback.
An synergistic whiteboard provides touch control of computing machine applications. These heighten the experience in the schoolroom by demoing anything that can be on a computing machine screen. This non merely AIDSs in ocular acquisition, but it is besides synergistic, that is, pupils can pull, compose, or manipulate images on the SmartBoard.
Streamed picture web sites can be utilized to heighten a schoolroom lesson, for case, United Streaming, Teacher Tube, etc.
Podcasting is a comparatively new innovation that allows anybody to print files to the Internet where persons can subscribe and have new audio files from people by a subscription. The primary benefit of podcasting for pedagogues is rather simple. It enables instructors to make pupils through a medium that is both the new manner of today ‘s childs, every bit good as a portion of their day-to-day lives. For a engineering that merely requires a computing machine, mike headset and cyberspace connexion, podcasting has the capacity of progressing a pupil ‘s instruction beyond the schoolroom. When pupils listen to the podcasts of other pupils every bit good as their ain, they can rapidly show their capacities to place and specify quality and develop their creativeness. This can be a great tool for acquisition and developing literacy inside and outside the schoolroom. Podcasting can assist sharpen pupils ‘ vocabulary, composing, redacting, public speech production, and presentation accomplishments. Students will besides larn accomplishments that will be valuable in the on the job universe, such as communicating, clip direction, and problem-solving.
There are many other tools being utilised depending on the local school board and financess available. These may include digital cameras, picture cameras, papers cameras, or LCD projectors.
Educational leading, besides known as school leading, is the procedure of enlisting and steering the endowments and energies of instructors, students, and parents toward accomplishing common educational purposes. Educational leading came into attending in the late twentieth century since demands were made on schools for higher degrees of student accomplishment, and schools were expected to better and reform. These outlooks were accompanied by calls for answerability at the school degree. The construct of leading was favored because it conveys dynamism and proactivity. The school caput is normally thought to be the school leader. However, school leading may include other individuals, such as members of a formal leading squad and other individuals who contribute toward the purposes of the school.
Research AND METHODOLOGY
THE MAURITIAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM
The instruction system in Mauritius, prototyped after the British theoretical account, has improved greatly since independency. After the state became independent in 1968, instruction became one of the chief preoccupations of the Mauritanian Government to run into the new challenges expecting the state. New dimensions have been added to instruction, which have bit by bit democratized the whole system. The authorities made an attempt to supply equal support for instruction, on occasion striving tight budgets. Considerable investing of resources, both human and stuff, has been put into the Education sector and impressive advancement has been achieved in footings of free and cosmopolitan instruction. Since 1976, instruction has been free for all and from the twelvemonth 1991, instruction has become compulsory for both male childs and misss. As from the twelvemonth 2005, with the debut of 11-year schooling, instruction has been free at all degrees and compulsory for all up to the age of 16.
Structure of? ?
From Primary school onwards, instruction has been structured in a 6-5-2 system, whereby a kid follows a lower limit of 6 old ages ‘ free and mandatory Primary Schooling taking to a Certificate of Primary Education ( CPE ) . This is followed by a lower limit of 5 old ages ‘ Secondary Schooling which is free and, compulsory until the age of 16. This 5 old ages ‘ schooling leads the student to a School Certificate ( SC ) or General Certificate of Education ( GCE ) – Ordinary Level, which henceforth enables him to prosecute another 2 old ages ‘ schooling taking to a Higher School Certificate – Advanced Level ( HSC ) , which is the cardinal towards Tertiary Education, either locally or overseas.
Students who fail to achieve a CPE are admitted to pre-vocational schools set up specially by the authorities to enable them to larn merely basic topics such as Mathematicss, English and French, and some skilled plants such as plumbing, electrical, handcrafts, art and picture, agribusiness, etc.
Today the instruction sector is being marked by a series of reforms based on invention and creativeness from pre-primary to third degree. The reforms are aligned on developments world-wide and they focus on authorising the Mauritanian kid to confront the challenges of the new millenary and to utilize information and technological tools available. One of the chief constituents of the reforms is the National Curriculum Framework for primary and secondary instruction. It brings about an all-round development of the person, therefore leting him to take a balanced, active and productive life style together with an apprehension of the biological, physical and technological universe. Education would besides do the kid conscious of the impressions of equity and societal justness.
As concerns secondary and third instruction, inventions brought are chiefly designed to enable schools and establishments to react efficaciously to local, national and international precedences. Further, the new reforms 2010 purpose to run into single larning demands of all pupils, supply a strong foundation for womb-to-tomb acquisition and instill in all scholars the accomplishment they need to accommodate to an ever-changing universe.
The course of study model for secondary instruction is based on the demand to prosecute pupils in meaningful and incorporate acquisition experiences. Sustainable development, citizenship, developing and keeping a civilization of peace and get bying with emphasis are elements that will cut across the acquisition procedure. The course of study base programme at the secondary degree has been broadened with accent on the instruction of scientific discipline and engineering to those non meaning to take scientific discipline as their field of survey in higher categories. General Science will go mandatory till Form V for pupils non choosing for a pure scientific discipline topic in position of the progressively of import function of scientific discipline. Changes at the secondary degree besides comprise the vocationalization of the course of study through the debut of new topics like Travel and Tourism, Physical Education, Marine Science and Environmental Management and the teaching method will be reinforced by the usage of ICT and multimedia.
The inclusion of excess and co-curricular activities for all in secondary schools is besides proposed by the Ministry of Education, Culture and Human Resources. Thus pupils will hold activity clip during which they can take from a scope of co-curricular activities. These activities include humanistic disciplines and trades, calculating, debating, play, dance, music, vocalizing and a broad scope of physical activities.
Students at the terminal of Form III will be ab initio assessed at national degree in literacy in English and French, Numeracy, ICT and Social Studies, taking to a National Certificate of Achievement. This certification will supply a statement of the degree achieved by each pupil in these nucleus competences.
The new secondary instruction course of study has been developed by maintaining in position the following cardinal features:
Promoting planetary consciousness
Integrated with other subjects
Acceptable to the community
Thematic / Spiral in attack
Fair to the scholar
Despite the fact that major inventions have been introduced into the system, there are still a figure of challenges that need to be faced and overcome as a complement to the reforms undertaken. Today, the major challenge is the reorganisation of the secondary instruction to guarantee the fosterage and development of the accomplishments and cognition required for socio-economic growing.
Since the twelvemonth 1991, all province schools have been equipped with a telecasting set and VCR participant so that pedagogues could do the most of the tools in the procedure of instruction and acquisition, by supplying more ocular support. Recently, the VCR participants have been replaced by DVD participants and schools have been provided computing machines and projectors. For the past 5 old ages, most schools even have internet connexion to enable instructors to make their research work in readying of their lessons. Besides, pupils are allowed to utilize cyberspace in school libraries to better their research accomplishments. However, merely 33 % of secondary schools in Mauritius have ADSL connexion and others are still utilizing the dial-up connexion.
In 2009, the Ministry of Education launched the EDU-WEB undertaking. This undertaking enables unrecorded broadcast and synergistic session in existent clip between the Minister and senior functionaries and caputs of both primary and secondary schools and the instruction staff.
Furthermore, two State Secondary schools have been equipped with Synergistic Whiteboards by the Ministry of Education on a pilot base. Subsequently, the authorities, in coaction with the Sankore Project, is coming with the puting up of at least one Interactive Whiteboard in each of its primary and secondary schools by the terminal of this twelvemonth. The Sankore Digital Education for all in Africa programme is portion of the Gallic part to the Franco-British partnership designed to accomplish the Millennium aims in instruction in Africa. In its 2010 – 2015 programme, the Sankore undertaking is supplying digital schoolroom equipment, resource creative activity and sharing, professional and schoolmaster preparation. The equipments provided include computing machines, projectors and Synergistic Whiteboards ( IWB ) .
Synchronous and asynchronous
There is a turning organic structure of grounds that immature kids invent or concept much of their ain mathematical cognition, and that they come to school with some well-developed, although intelligibly immature ways of covering with assorted mathematical state of affairss. We do non look to take full advantage of kids ‘s constructs in our plans of mathematics learning and direction.
Analysis AND FINDINGS
EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Emphasis ON TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION
The ultimate aim of any educational endeavor is to better pupil accomplishment so that persons may carry through their personal aspirations and go lending members of society. This requires meaningful alteration in the manner pedagogues do their work. It requires new constructions, new tools and new cognition. But more than anything, the civilization of the instruction system must alter. And making a civilization of accomplishment throughout an instruction system requires a different mentality wholly.