Theories And Understanding Of Risk Management Finance Essay

The purpose of this study is to present the apprehension of the hazard direction and the theories associated with the hazard direction. The study will besides measure the pattern of the hazard direction in different countries, it besides include survey of hazard and theory of the hazard direction in British Bankss and other countries besides. Report will seek to indentify the cardinal factors involved in hazard direction procedure. It besides throws visible radiation on function of hazard direction in different geographical countries. Phases and development of the hazard direction procedure will be taken into consideration.

As we know that today ‘s concern is full of hazards and concern units are keep on seeking to cut down the hazard factor attached with the operations of the concern. We know that every concern had a fright of the hazard associated with it and direction is seeking to cut down this factor. Risk direction had theories and constructs which are used by direction in order to cut down the hazard factor. We know that hereafter is unsure and the premises are made in order to experiment some new techniques. Risk ever includes premises and some concern houses earns immense net income through premises made without fearing of the hazard involved under the premises made.

As concern houses are turning on the rapid rate of development, the opportunity of hazard is more as the growing shows more net income for concern houses. Risk direction helps concern houses to come over the hazard involved in the operations of the concern. Risk direction controls the procedure and operations of the concern hazard involved into the concern activities. The competition in the market and the engagement of the hazard in the concern allows houses to detect the construct of hazard direction. Risk direction determines the countries of the hazard and direction attempts to take the hazard. There are internal and external types of hazard associated within the administration.

Hazard applies where the hereafter is unknown and risk direction helps to bear hazard. In today ‘s universe every person is a hazard director because every little or large concern houses take opportunities to turn and spread out their concern. Risk direction helps concern houses to cut down their disbursals. Risk direction is associated with pure hazard it is a type of a hazard. Pure hazard is that sort of a hazard which had opportunity of loss but does non hold any opportunity of deriving something. if direction are able to command to pull off their pure hazard so they can deviate their attending towards other countries of development.

As we know that pure hazard is linked with hazard direction it helps direction to take concern determinations carefully. Risk direction besides affect bad type of hazard, bad hazard is what when we have both opportunities of net income and loss. Pure hazard helps put on the line direction to do out difference between failure and success. In every corner of the universe hazard direction applies, even in non net income administrations risk direction survive.non net income administration include households, societies and communities utilizing hazard direction.

Risk direction helps an concern administration to be stable and active in the market so direction may accomplish high mark of return. this study helps us to cognize the nature and true construct of hazard direction is different parts. It will besides explicate us about nature, virtues and demerits of hazard direction for concern administrations. Risk direction helps us to cognize about concealed advanced thoughts as directions have fright of losing money. Risk direction promote advanced thoughts and works on the positions of the new engineering so that administration will be in touch with twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours minutess.

Risk direction plays an of import for direction in order to ease alterations made in the administrations and which helps to take the fright of hazard which will come through alterations made. Under this study all the major theories and pattern made through will be taken into considerasation.it will incorporate the issues related to put on the line direction.

Introduction to Risk Management

As we know that hazard factors are available in each concern administration but it besides prevails in non net income administration. Hazard as we know that is concerned with future and present and we know that hereafter is unknown and unsure. Risk direction is long procedure controlled and managed by hazard director. Risk direction trades with operation of concern activities which tries meet the hereafter hazards linked with the concern administration.

Definition of hazard direction

*Risk direction is a procedure of direction which tries to place, measuring and analyzing hazard through the policies and pattern of hazard direction.

* Risk direction trades with hazard designation, measuring and analyzing hazard in order to run into the aims of administration.

*Risk direction covers all the procedure which includes hazard finding and taking farther stairss for future advancement.

*Risk direction is a technique to find the hazard and the policies and processs which are used by directors to do hazard factor cut down so that administration aims may be achieved.

*Risk direction is the manner of commanding and measuring hazards which are associated with the activities of the concern administration, hazard direction helps put on the line director to develop future schemes for the hazard found.

As we know that in today ‘s concern oriented universe every field has engagement of hazard factors, so risk direction plays an of import function. Every sector had risk factor because each and every concern units attempts to follow new engineering for farther advancement in the concern with an purpose of cut downing cost of production and maximal return. Risk direction plays an of import function in an administration. The policies and processs are comely used by hazard directors to command and measure concern hazard.

Risk direction is concerned with both internal and external hazards associated with the concern administration. Risk direction plants on the evidences of the administration in order to happen and develop solution for the hazard founded. Risk director are employed in a house to understand the nature of the hazard and seek to take that hazard for the house. Risk direction usage different schemes to pull off hazards. It includes hazard transportation, diminishing negative consequence of the hazard.

Purposes and aim of the study.

The purpose of this study is to happen the importance of hazard direction in mundane life of an administration whether the administration is net income earning or a societal service based administration. Report will bring forth how risk direction develops ways to command and handle the hazards identified.

The content in the study will clearly demo the overall aim of hazard direction in an administration. We know that hazard direction had a wider range in every administration and it plays an of import function for the direction of the administration. In order to run into the aim, study will clearly place the theories and it will besides sum up literature and research work of hazard direction performed in the administration.

The chief point of treatment beginning and success of hazard direction is different countries of direction and in different countries of the part. The procedure will clearly specify the function of hazard direction and it will demo the running of hazard directions programs and policies.

Report will bring forth the funtion, aims and function of hazard direction in concern administration. The execution will besides be the point of treatment, it will demo the usage of tools for handling the hazard.

Role of hazard direction

As we know that hazard direction plays an of import function in any administration whether the administration is net income gaining or non net income gaining administration. Risk direction is linked with investing and determinations of the concern. When concern determination is made hazard direction should be connected because hazard direction plays an of import function in determination devising procedure.

Risk direction plays an of import function when direction is concerned about determination related to investing and engagement of hazard factor in that investing. Every administration knows that when determinations are made two factors plays important function. These factors are on the both side of the determinations, these factors are net income from investing and engagement of hazard factor in that investing.

Risk direction is concerned with designation and appraisal of the hazard available in the administration. Risk direction map of the administration depends on the size of the administration, it implies if the administration is little so there will be portion clip handiness of hazard director or if the administration is large so there will be full clip handiness of hazard director.

Risk direction should include all these points

*There should be readying of hazards studies for stockholders and for managers of the board.

*There should be proper coordination of activities which throws impact on hazard direction in the administration.

*There should be basic readying of procedures for hazard related issues and determinations related to these issues.

*There should be different policies and scheme for internal and external hazards available for the administration.

*There should be proper policy formation which is to be used by hazard directors while analyzing hazard factors.

Risk direction is that section of the administration which plays an of import function in determination doing procedure of the administration. Risk direction sustains growing of the administration as all determination is connected with the hazard direction section of the administration. Risk direction clarifies each and every determination of the direction. Risk direction revolve around the determinations of the direction because it has its ain place in the direction.

Role of Risk Manager

Hazard trough plays an of import function in the administration. He is the 1 who decide which determination is good for the administration. Risk director surveies the hazard factors involvement in determination which are made or traveling to be made by the managment.risk director decides whether investings are profitable or non for the administration.

Following are the points which are performed by the Risk Manager in an administration.

*Risk director helps to find the loss on the administration, employees, and environment and on the general populace by the hazard determined.

*Risk director prepare programs and process on hazard related factor and he besides determine which stairss should be taken when hazard happens.

*Risk director develops processs which are related to when hazard happened and how administration should itself for the claim procedure.

*Risk director organise and organize all the squads of the hazard direction which are topographic point to analyze the hazards.

*Risk director ensures bringing of each hazard related activity successfully in order to acquire best consequences.

*Risk director develops web of communicating between squad and fellow subsidiaries in order tackle hazards.

*Risk director ensures proper working on issues related to determinations which are on investings of the concern and hazard director attempts to present his determinations carefully because it is related to hereafter of the concern.

*Risk director besides identifies the stakeholder involve into procedure of hazards.

*Risk director after analyzing the hazards identified, surveies the rate of success standards over the hazard identified. Manager clarifies to direction of the administration after traveling through the hazard identified whether direction will be able to get the better of the hazard or direction has to bear the loss and how much is the loss and whether hazard direction applies on that hazard or non.

*Risk director besides identifies whether the hazard is mono or the hazard is related to group of hazards associated together. If the hazard is single-channel so separate policies and stairss will be taken into history instead than stairss used to mensurate and appraisal of hazards related to group hazards.

Procedure of Risk Management

Risk direction procedure includes all these which help direction to get the better of from hazards. Risk direction procedure includes from hazard designation to intervention of hazard identified. Risk direction performs its maps intentionally so that direction accomplish its aims.

Risk direction includes the undermentioned stairss:

1.The first measure include formation of processs and communicating through the administration in order to happen hazard which may born or may non born from activities of the concern. Determination of the hazard is the first map performed by the hazard decision maker.

2. The 2nd measure involves measuring of losingss associated with the hazard identified in the measure foremost. This measure includes the undermentioned stairss:

*chances of losingss.

*if loss occurs what will be the impact of these losingss on fiscal conditions of the house.

*these besides include the happening of losingss during budget period. This measure is more of import as when hazard is measured, sometimes it is necessary to bespeak the hazards those are needed particular pressing attending of the hazard decision maker. This measure besides gathers information for the following measure.

3. After this the following measure is to utilize best alternate tools of the hazard direction for handling the hazard. The following are the tools of the hazard direction:

*risk turning away

Under this we can easy avoid the hazard identified.

*reduction in the opportunities of losingss

Under this we can cut down the opportunity of hazard, whether the hazard will happen or non. the opportunities of losingss are besides reduced.

*transformation of hazard

Under this tool we can reassign hazard to another party.

*internally confronting the hazard

Under this, direction and hazard decision maker attempts to command hazard internally instead than doing it external.

After analyzing these full tools hazard director see best tool for handling the hazard. Risk director should choose best tool and current fiscal place of the administration should be taken into history.

4. After traveling through all these hazard director will implement the best selected tools for handling the hazard.

5. After the intervention of the hazard the feedback from these stairss will be evaluated and monitored because alterations in the conditions may use and determinations will suggested with different types of consequence.

Literature position

Beginning of hazard direction

Lam James he was the first individual who uses hazard direction, in the twelvemonth 1993.he publish the first hazard criterion. The narrative behind the beginning of hazard direction starts when he was a kid and he was playing with numbered mystifier which made him surprise when he joins the points of the Numberss puzzle.

By fall ining the numbered points and he framed a image. He created a image of a subject. This subject was risk direction. He connected and depict its mile rocks of the hazard direction from 1900.risk direction contain those thoughts, sense and a systematic attack to uncertainnesss. This allows us to populate confidentially and consistently, it helps us to cut down wastages of resources. Risk direction is non depends on fortune and affair of religion on happening of events.

Following are the mileposts of hazard direction:

1990

The usage of hazard direction in the great Galveston, Texas helps in anticipation of whether, this drastic alteration in conditions destroyed metropolis in 12 hours and killed about 5000 peoples due to hurricane and inundations.

1905-1912

Introduction of workers compensation jurisprudence in U.S.this was an origin based in Germany in the twelvemonth 1881, Otto von Bismarck, and Chancellor of the Exchequer of germany.these types of societal strategies includes insurance.

it leads to pensions by authorities in many states in the 1930 ‘s and more after wards. This was signal of motion to corporate universe and to authorities.

1920

The first usage of internal hazard of funding used by oiler insurance company.

it was get downing in 70 ‘s and 80 ‘s there are large companies like this around 5000 and they have $ 50 billion as one-year premiums.

1921

In this twelvemonth a book was published by blunt knight, the rubric of the book was hazard, uncertainity and net income. Book becomes popular and was milestone in the history of hazard direction. Book explains uncertainly which is non mensurable by hazard and he defines entryway of surprises.

In the same twelvemonth another book comes out on hazard related, the rubric of the book was hoarded wealth on chance. He defines opinion and perceptual experience related issues which are helpful in finding chances are determined.

1926

John and Neumann represented his first paper on the theory of games and scheme.

He suggested that end losing does non count winning dramas of import function when opportunity of winning is at that place. After that 1953 theory of games and economic behavior published by toilet Neumann and Oskar Morgenstern.

1933

During this twelvemonth US Congress passed glass stea saddle sore act. This stops Bankss, insurance companies, investing Bankss.

After this there was a brake on fiscal establishments and this provoked the development of hazard direction subject.

1945

Risk direction come into more lime visible radiation when US Congress passed megahertz auto ran Ferguson act. It was related to dilation of insurance to different provinces.

This was a brakeless motion for hazard direction. Risk direction becomes more of import as insurance industry respond to put on the line direction.

1952

Novel award victor in 1990 through diary of finance publishes ‘portfolio choice ‘ .

It was by Dr.markowitz he explains sophisticated step of hazards associated with finance which are used in twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours minutess.

1956

There was a Publication of hazard direction -a new stage of cost control.

It was by Harvard concern reappraisal. Harmonizing to professor of Wayne snider university of Pennsylvania, harmonizing to his positions a hazard director is a professional insurance director.

1962

In this twelvemonth in Toronto Douglas Barlow a company of Massey Ferguson under which he was a hazard director he funded the thought of cost of hazard after he compared premiums of insurance loss control costs assets and equity.

it was a motion which moves insurance from hazard direction insurance.

1966

3 stairss of tests are developed by insurance institute of America it was related to appellation of associate in hazard direction.

It was first enfranchisement in this field.

1972

Dr. Kenneth a Nobel award victor in economic scientific discipline he pictured the issues like uncertainness in insurable.

He recommends that we are best prepared for hazard because we accepts its possible as about plentifulness and stimulation.

1973

There was a meeting of insurance companies ; this meeting was to make a survey of insurance economic sciences.

There was formation of links between hazard direction, economic and insurance. Director of Geneva association promotes the subject.

1974

Risk director of Sweden based company Gustavo Hamilton founded hazard direction circle.

It clearly showed the procedure from appraisal to intervention of hazards from fiscal to communicating procedure.

1975

American society of insurance direction become hazard an insurance direction society.it has 3500 corporate member, 7000 deputy members.

It had different programmes based on services and instruction which are linked with insurance hazard director.

1976

Fortune magazine publishes an article related to put on the line direction.

Title of the article was risk direction revolution.

It showed that maps of hazard direction within the administration are unconnected and duties board of an administration prepares policy for the administration.

1980

For presentation of public policy hazard analysis society was formed in washington.it has 2200 members the full universe.

Footings like hazard appraisal and hazard direction become familiar.

1983

Launch of hazard direction thought in public by William Ruckelshaus.

In this twelvemonth hazard direction was in national political docket.

1986

Risk direction in London

First hazard direction instruction plan was launched.

In the US hazard keeping act was passed.

1987

Oct 19.1997 black Monday hits stock market of the United States.

It reminds about the presence of hazard in the market.

In the same twelvemonth a book was published related to put on the line direction and appraisal of hazard direction by Dr.vernon grose.

1992

Submission of the study by Cadbury in the UK.it shows the subsiding of hazard direction regulating board is responsible.

It ensures that administration understands the full procedure of hazards.

US, GERMANY and SOUTH AFRICA develops broader construct for hazard direction in an administration.

1993

Title head hazard officer used to give information about operations of hazard direction and full structured procedure of hazard direction.

Today we have 150 Chief hazard officers available for multi hazard maps.

1995

Australia and New Zealand together publishes first hazard direction criterion AS/NZS 4360:1995.

It brings several subjects together.

Canada and Japan besides hands to advance hazard direction.

1996

GARP ( planetary association of hazard professionals ) nowadayss currency, recognition, rate of involvement and investing hazard begins which was stated in New York and London.

Now the administration is connected to universe through cyberspace

By 2002 it grows as largest hazard direction association.

Publication of against the Gods: the singular narrative of hazard direction. It was a best marketer in North America and Europe.

It was an effort to present cognition of hazard direction to universe.

2000

This was the great twelvemonth for hazard direction.

Billions was invested to upgrade the system.

2001

Peter Bernstein ‘s book was adding more colorss to the development of hazard direction.

Communication importance was illustrated in the book.

Under the book it was clearly reference that hazard communicating can be positive or negative.

It brings importance of hazard direction for both persons and administration.

Principles of hazard direction

There are certain Numberss of hazard direction rules which an administration has to follow in order to accomplish the coveted aim of the administration. Risk direction should include the follow the undermentioned rules:

*risk direction should include creative activity of the value.

*risk direction should be participative in the administration.

*risk direction should demo its engagement in the determination doing procedure of the administration.

*risk direction should seek to turn to hazard to direction.

*risk direction should be in structured signifier.

*risk direction should roll up exact information which should be free from mistakes.

*risk direction should include human thoughts, suggestions instead than taking aid from cyberspace.

*risk direction should be able to demo uninterrupted betterment in the administration.

An overview on the history of British banking

The seventeenth centaury

*different types of goldworkers are associated with crown and royal batch, tower factory that was holding gold but was seized by Charles 1.

*due to extension of services royal batch is non the safe topographic point for maintaining gold.

* ” keepers of running hard currency ” goldworker they used to accept gold in exchange and they are in the procedure of giving grosss for lodging the sum or the gold.

*this papers was known as bank note.

*in 1960, a merchandiser who deals with vesture universe launched first bank in nil jambon.

*the name of the individual was Thomas Smith.

*bank of England was formed in the twelvemonth 1694.

*for concern purpose an act for act for raising a bank in Scotland was created on 17 July 1695 by the parliament of Scotland.

*during this procedure bank of England was developed for fiscal chances for England and bank of Scotland was created by Scots authorities for advancing concern of Scotland.

18th centuary

*there was a monolithic addition in the Bankss, during 18th centaury in london.there is merchandisers banking available outside the London.

*by the coming of 1784 there are 100 + provincial Bankss available in the state.

*an act was passed in parliament in 1708 which prohibits Bankss non to increase spouses more than 6 in Numberss.

*this act promoted book-keeping and formation of partnerships in little groups.

*an addition in the services took topographic point like investing in securities, clearance installations and debut of overdraft installation besides started.

*an disadvantage for Bankss came when bank of England restricted hard currency payments it ‘s all because of the menaces of war to england.after this intelligence parliament of the state enables bank of England and others available bankers of the state to let denomination on issue processs.

nineteenth century

*Lancaster banking company was formed on 23 October 1826.it was a joint stock bank. Earlier an old bank n Bristol was altered in joint stock bank ; it was a first articulation stock bank of the state.

*national provincial Bankss were considered as true bank as it has created 20 subdivisions across Wales and England.

*in 1984 bank charter act was passed it was formed to modulate the policies of the Bankss in note issue.

*20 smaller Bankss articulations together and formed as joint stock bank in the twelvemonth 1896.the name of the bank was Barclay and company. Now it is known as Barclay plc.

twentieth centaury

*Due to exposure of war banking, Bankss viz. midland, llyords, Barclays, national provincial bank and vest minster. They are in the series if amalgamations and coup d’etats. These all are under authorities control.

*due to banking wars Bankss tried to establish little strategies which includes salvaging strategies and Bankss tried to pull non affluent clients.

*until 1950 recovery programme of Bankss was traveling on and there was a immense development in the enlargement of the subdivisions of the provincial Bankss.

*in the twelvemonth 1976 an act was passed which reflects the function of bank of England as supervisory.

21st centaury

*the current place of the UK banking system is traveling through enormous installations. Servicess of the Bankss are redefined. The rates of involvement of every bank are different.

*in the twelvemonth 2006 office of just trading noted that there were development on the charges of the recognition cards are charged by the Bankss. Punishment charges applied on recognition cards are non legal in the UK.

*the opinion made by the OFT is extended and refused by many clients, due to punishment charges instances of the clients predominating in the tribunals of the UK.many of the clients got back their punishment charges back.

*as on October 11 British Bankss have their short term liabilities equal to 156 % of the gross domestic merchandise.

*the mean purchase ratio ( asset/net worth ) is 24:1.

Risk direction in banking

As we know that hazard direction prevails in every sector of the universe whether its concern administration or societal administration. Risk direction in banking contains all those risk direction procedures and theoretical accounts which are used by the Bankss to implement the policies and patterns based on the hazard. Risk direction theoretical accounts spreads in different countries like market hazard, recognition hazard, involvement rate hazard, liquidness and operational hazard. Banking hazard are defined as the defined as the hazard on the beginnings of uncertainness which besides had impact on the profitableness of the Bankss. The measurings of the hazards in banking arena include the finding of the beginnings of uncertainness and the consequence of these hazards on the net income border of the Bankss.

Importance of hazard based patterns

*risk visibleness and sensitiveness are importance to Bankss because it involves hazard, they try to take hazards and procedure of transition took topographic point and they convert invention into merchandises and services of the Bankss.

*practices involved in the hazards are utilizing steps which are quantified.

*in the existence of finance, hazard and return are two sides of the same of a one coin.

*the importance of seting hazard is comparing different types of public presentations linked with different degrees of hazard.

*managing of hazards at active degrees is a virtue to banking universe.

*proper usage of regulations and ordinances plays an of import function in commanding steps.

*practices which are based on hazard have a construct of motive and processs which helps in hazard steps.

Pre necessity for hazard direction in fiscal establishments

*measurement of hazard and its rating.

*under direction control, tracement of hazard and back to origin point of the hazard.

Note:

*If we jump into the procedure of pull offing hazards without cognition of hazards and its magnitude of how to command hazards we will lose.

*the oldest hazard to banking universe is recognition hazard ; it is the most ambitious hazards. Banks actively dainties recognition hazard. Credit hazard is unseeable in nature.

*basically patterns of the Bankss depend on the traditional factors like balances of loans with borrowers and sum of hazard involved in that and measuring of hazard internally.

*credit hazard measuring is a relevant stairss for every bank its similar opinion process to the followed while covering with borrower and the effects of recognition worthiness of the client.

Types of hazard

*operational hazard

*liquidity hazard

*market hazard

*credit hazard

*interest hazard

*foreign market hazard

*different hazard includes state hazard, colony hazard, and public presentation hazard.

Recognition hazard

It is sort of loss that is caused when an single fail to do payment to its banker or to the borrower.

It is a fiscal term which comes into spotlight when there is a opportunity that borrower may neglect to refund its debt to the creditor.

Operational hazard

Operational hazard is that hazard which happens due to many grounds like:

*improper usage and processs while executing any concern activity.

*system failure.

*improper supervising

Method involved in operational hazard direction

*advanced measurement attacks.

*standardized attack

*basic index attack.

Interest rate hazard

It is a hazard which happens when on any plus involvement rate applies and there is variableness available in the involvement rate.

The measuring of the involvement rate depends on clip period.

Liquid hazard

It is a hazard which happens when an plus fails to be traded in the market in a given span of clip in order to cut down opportunities of loss.

Types of liquidness hazard

*asset liquidness

*funding liquidness

Measurement of liquidness hazard

*Liquidity spread

*liquidity hazard snap.

Market hazard

It happens on the value of portfolio which is related to trading and the market alterations affect the trading value.

Types of market hazards

*interest monetary values.

*foreign exchange rates.

*commodity monetary values.

*stock monetary values.

Importance of hazard direction in banking

Risk direction plays an of import function in the existence of the banking. Risk direction sustains the growing of the banking sector. Risk direction explains banking sector how to last in the market and how to increase the merchandises and services of the Bankss. Risk direction throws visible radiation on those factors which affects the profitableness of the Bankss. Risk direction helps to diminish the uncertainnesss available to the Bankss and provide ways to cover with those uncertainnesss with usage of several hazard direction policies and theoretical accounts of hazard direction which are created for Bankss.

Risk direction theories and policies framed by hazard director helps fiscal establishments to cut down hazard factor and seek to derive maximal profitableness from the available and freshly launched merchandises and services of the Bankss. Banking universes is rather risk oriented as it has different types of hazard available as discussed earlier. Banking concern contains hazard which is associated with market as market shows alterations opportunities of many hazards take birth in the banking universe. Banking hazards are curable with many different types of banking hazard theoretical accounts available with the hazard directors.

Risk direction helps a fiscal establishment in order to avoid certain uncertainnesss feasible to the banking universe. Risk direction determines those countries of hazard on the footing of which hazard based determinations are made. Risk direction enables fiscal establishments to take determinations carefully which are related to hazard and those have greater effects on the profitableness of the Bankss. Risk direction ensures sound public presentation of hazard directors and their support to the determination squad in order to acquire the best determination for the Bankss. Hazard directors enable a fiscal establishment to work in a hazard free environment in order to acquire maximal profitableness from the merchandises and services of the bank.

Hazard directors enable a fiscal establishment to work in a hazard free environment in order to acquire maximal profitableness from the merchandises and services of the bank. Risk direction plays important function for a fiscal establishment in order to last in the market. Risk based determinations plays an of import function in order to accomplish the coveted mark of the establishment. Risk direction helps put on the line director to be after a scheme in order to cover with determinations which are hazard based and those require particular attendings like determinations related to recognition policy of the fiscal establishment. Several hazards available for the fiscal establishment are related to market like liquidness hazard, recognition hazard, market hazard etc.

August 21, 2017