Critical thought has been seen as one of the most critical facets in instruction for many old ages. Its deduction in one ‘s instruction has been significantly debated in the universe of instruction since Benjamin Bloom took the lead in developing the end of educational procedure in American Psychological Association Convention in 1948 ( Schneider, 2002 ) . Since so, most pedagogues feel obliged to learn critical thought accomplishments to their pupils.
Nowadays, most instruction systems and modern instructors have realised that learning utilizing rote acquisition and bore and rehearse methods are no longer a suited acquisition teaching method. As instruction should seek to fix scholars for self way in the existent universe, the instruction scheme used should dispute pupils to “ larn to larn ” in order to look for solutions to real-world-situation jobs. Moore ( 1989 ) findings claim that critical thought accomplishments have been admitted by most pedagogues as the accomplishments necessary for Twentieth Century acquisition.
With rapid development of Information Technology ( IT ) that provides its user with easy entree to knowledge, it is of import for pupils to be able to get by with huge sum of cognition and choice necessity from it. Therefore, critical thought is perceived as of import because it emphasises that larning procedure should be greatly placed on the scholars and how they organise their cognition ( Chitravelu, Sithamparam & A ; Teh, 2005 ) . Critical thought proposes scholars to larn by analyzing jobs and larn how to believe for themselves alternatively of rote memorisation, repeat and drills. The believing procedure involves job work outing accomplishments, construing informations and measuring groundss to build cognition and statement in order to seek solutions for the job as pupils do their independent find of the capable affair.
In a traditional schoolroom, the instructor would promote pupils ‘ critical thought accomplishments by inquiring unfastened ended, thought exciting inquiries that require the pupils to connote their cognition or experiences to work out the job. This normally been done in little or big group treatment as acquisition is said to be more effectual when it is done socially and collaboratively amongst equals ( Vygotsky, 1986 ) . In order to take part expeditiously in an academic treatment, pupils need to hold the accomplishments to measure other ‘s sentiments, analyze its strengths and failings, so independently construct ain point of views supported with relevant groundss before they could reason moderately ( Marttunen & A ; Laurinen, 1999 ) . This is known as argumentative cognition building procedure.
These accomplishments are viewed every bit necessary as an active battle in the group treatment requires one to undergo the procedure of analyzing the strengths and failings of other ‘s positions, reflecting and measuring the possible solutions for the undertaking at manus. This is to promote socio-cognitive procedure that requires one to digest antecedently acquired cognition and before one can emerge with new understanding. Therefore, it is concluded that critical thought accomplishment is an of import facet in order to bring forth life long scholars. However, what can the pedagogues do in order to instill higher order believing such as critical thought accomplishments onto their pupils? What are the cognitive procedures involved during the cognition building procedure? Most significantly, what are the learning methods or tools that can be used to heighten this procedure?
Background of Problem
Critical thought is defined as a procedure that requires one to reflect, analyse, concept, generate thoughts, draw illations and measure in order to work out a job ( Chance, 1986 ) . Woolfolk ( 1993 ) claims that critical thought as measuring decision after consistently and logically analyzing the job, the groundss and the solution options.
Higher order believing accomplishments such as critical thought accomplishments is said as indispensable accomplishments in order to bring forth pupils with independent believing to confront existent life state of affairss. Critical thought accomplishment is non merely of import in instruction field, but seen as every bit a necessary accomplishment in working field excessively. DETYA ( 2000 ) study proclaims that university graduates that show critical thought are extremely desired by employers. Harmonizing to Chartrand ( 2009 ) , critical thought is rated as the highest in a study of 400 Human Resource professional when they were asked to call the most indispensable accomplishment that an employee will necessitate for the following five old ages. She farther claims in her research that a study done by Society for Human Resource Management and The Conference Board study that merely 28 per centum of employees with a four-year college instruction are rated as critical minds and 70 per centum of employees with high school instruction are deficient in critical thought accomplishments. In Malaysia, six out of 10 university alumnuss take every bit much as six months to be employed due to miss of critical thought accomplishments and hapless communicating ( Gurvinder Kaur & A ; Sharan Kaur, 2009 ) . Due to these grounds, many alterations have been done in the instruction system globally to incorporate critical thought accomplishments into the bing instruction course of study.
As critical thought is about impossible to be taught in isolation for immature and secondary school scholars, it is frequently integrated in constructivist acquisition environment that supports active acquisition. Constructivism theory of larning encourages pupils to build their ain acquisition ( Woolfolk, 1993 ) as pupils are given specific undertaking that requires them to analyze the state of affairs of the job before they can emerge with possible solutions to the job at manus. One of the schemes that is good known in constructivist acquisition theory is by incorporating job based larning such as job based instances so as to bring forth holistic scholars.
Higher order believing accomplishments have been late integrated in many topics taught in schools. In an attempt to incorporate critical thought with the instruction of History topic in Winconsin, for illustration, the instructors are utilizing primary beginnings such as a transcript of historical paperss or analysis of eyewitnesses ‘ recount to increase pupils ‘ involvement in History and at the same clip developing critical thought accomplishments by analyzing the historical groundss ( Michael et. Al, 2005 ) . Whilst in Seattle, a high school known as Aviation High School incorporates critical and job work outing accomplishments into the instruction of Science capable by delegating the pupils to finish an technology design undertaking. The pupils are required to develop and prove out several different wings that can defy a different sum of force per unit area and make up one’s mind which 1 is the most effectual ( Raker, 2012 ) . Another illustration, the Physics instructors in Malaysia incorporate critical and job work outing accomplishments in the acquisition procedure by utilizing simulation undertaking to learn Archimedes Principle. The upper secondary pupils need to bring forth a hot air balloon theoretical account that could drift and they need to work out the jobs by independently and critically using their cognition on perkiness and denseness ( Curriculum Development Center, 2005 ) .
Presently, Malaysia instruction system is traveling towards incorporating critical thought into its course of study excessively. As reported by Gurvinder Kaur and Sharan Kaur ( 2009 ) , one of the chief jobs amongst employees newly graduated from Malayan universities is lack in footings of critical thought and hapless communicating. They further claim that this shows that it is no longer plenty for pupils to go forth schools with the 3R accomplishments viz. reading, composing and arithmetic accomplishments. As a consequence, most of the pupils and even alumnuss being produced under this instruction system appear as inactive receiving systems of cognition, deficiency of critical thought accomplishments and really much dependant on others.
Therefore, to counter this job, a few schemes have been introduced by Malaysia authorities to control this job at all instruction degrees. One of the attempts is being implemented at university degree as establishments of higher instruction play a critical function to fit the undergraduates with necessary soft accomplishments for their hereafter employability benefits. Ministry of Higher instruction ( MOHE ) makes it a demand for the undergraduates ‘ course of study in public universities in Malaysia to integrate relevant soft accomplishments such as communicative accomplishments, critical thought and job resolution accomplishments, womb-to-tomb acquisition, squad work force and leading accomplishments into its course of study ( Hairuzila, Hazadiah & A ; Normah, 2010 ) . Therefore, appraisals for undergraduates are non merely based on pen and paper trial, but could besides be based on activities or work Fieldss that require them use job work outing accomplishments in a existent life state of affairss.
Apart from that, a few alterations have besides been introduced at school degree. In order to travel off from the comfort zone of instructor centred in Malayan schools, the learning methods in schools have besides been move towards pupil centred as to advance active acquisition. However, Nagappan ( 2001 ) provinces in one of his findings that it is believed that instructors available in schools presents are largely non well-trained in integrating higher order believing accomplishments in the schoolroom. Therefore, transmutation has besides been made in footings of Teacher Education Programme in order to bring forth future pedagogues that are equipped with cognition and accomplishments to teacher higher order believing in schoolrooms. Harmonizing to Nagappan ( 2001 ) , the Teacher Education Division has made a few alterations to Malaysia Teacher Education Programme by following Boston Model to recommend incorporating learning critical thought across course of study in schools get downing from June 1994.
Besides, Ministry of Education ( MOE ) has besides made a few changes in footings of course of study development by incorporating higher order believing such as critical and critical thought accomplishments into assorted topics taught in both primary and secondary schools ( Curriculum Development Center, 2005 ) . Latest as reported in National Education Blueprint 2013-2025, one of the 11 displacements to transform current instruction system is the national scrutiny and school-based appraisal will be revamped and geared towards higher order believing accomplishments ( HOTS ) in order to bring forth pupils that are globally competitory ( Malaysia Education Blueprint, 2012 ) .
One of these alterations is clearly apparent in English Language course of study. Ministry of Education ( MOE ) has besides introduced some alterations in the instruction course of study on the instruction of English as another attempt to instill critical thought accomplishments every bit good as re-establishing its importance in Malayan schools. In 2000, one of the major alterations that have been introduced in our instruction course of study is the incorporation of English Literature Component in the English Language course of study for secondary schools. Whilst this incorporation is aimed to better pupils ‘ linguistic communication proficiency, it is besides intended to heighten their aesthetic accomplishments in which pupils are expected to come out with personal responses about the literature piece being reviewed. This is aimed to bring forth scholars equipped with critical thought accomplishments and fix them with critical attitudes towards cognition and have the ability to bring forth scientific debates in educational treatments.
However, the attempt of incorporating Literature Component in Secondary English Syllabus in Malaysian schools to bring forth critical minds does non truly turn out every bit intended. Surveies have shown that in most schools in Malaysia, pupils appear as inactive scholars and are unable to react critically and analytically to the content. ( Radzuwan, Malachi & A ; Shireena, 2010 ) . This could be due to the learning methodological analysis being applied in Malayan schools. Fauziah ( 2008 ) claims that one of the ground to the failure is due to the deficient clip for the pedagogues to complete the course of study on clip and at the same clip under the force per unit area of the demand to fix the pupils for the written scrutinies. Hence, the instruction of literature lesson frequently excessively teacher-centred and presented in one-way instruction and so pupils are required to memorise its content to obtain high class.
Besides, the big spread in footings of English linguistic communication proficiency amongst pupils in one schoolroom is another factor that leads to spoon feeding civilization in learning English Literature at secondary schools. Although all pupils have the chance to larn English since simple school, non everyone learn at the same rate. It is non unusual to hold a few pupils who are good versed about the Literature content and ready to be challenged with activities that trigger their critical thought accomplishments whilst another half could non to the full understand the plot line even after direction. As instructors do non truly hold the clip to carry through these different demands at the same clip, this consequences the high winners to easy experience world-weary whilst the low winners merely give up larning ( Radzuwan, Malachi & A ; Shireena, 2010 ) . This is decidedly will bring forth an dismaying state of affairs in the hereafter as rote memorisation is non the best manner of acquisition, allow entirely to instill higher order thought in the acquisition procedure. Besides, memorisation of English text or transitions decidedly will non assist to better one ‘s bid of the linguistic communication, non to advert one ‘s scientific debate in treatment.
However, surveies have shown that instructor is non the exclusive resource in cognition acquisition ( Chitravelu, Sithamparan & A ; Teh, 2005 ) . Learning is believed an active, constructive procedure within an single and can be enhanced by larning with others ( Smith & A ; MacGregor, 2001 ) . This attack is known as collaborative acquisition. They further claim that interactions between equals to accomplish common apprehension over certain affair or struggle seem assuring in supplying a platform for pupils to go critical minds and heighten their cognition building procedure. This is because in a collaborative acquisition environment, pupils create new understanding with the information and thoughts gathered within group activities alternatively of merely taking in and accepting new information or thoughts.
Whilst collaborative acquisition sounds perfect to promote pupil centred acquisition, this chance besides full with challenges if it were to be applied to the full in a traditional schoolroom. Planing a collaborative undertaking within a traditional schoolroom requires a great trade on clip allotment and drastic alteration in footings of the function of the instructor as cognition sender ( Smith & A ; MacGregor, 2001 ) . Collaborative larning demands a great trade of clip ingestion for the scholars to work together and assist each other before they could come out with new apprehension over the affair. This leads to deficient clip for both the instructor and pupils to turn to all of the other demands of the class such as assignments and scrutinies. Besides, some pupils appear to be diffident with the face to confront interaction during the treatment with equals. Apart from that, for the 1s who excessively concern about the relationship with their equals might be excessively cautious of their vocalizations. This causes them to go inactive scholars and merely having positions from others which is no different from the authoritative teacher-centred attack.
However, in this new epoch of rapid development of computing machine and communicating engineerings such as Internet have significantly changed the manner people work, drama and learn. Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning ( CSCL ) , a acquisition procedure that encourages sharing of cognition and information through equal interaction with the usage of computing machine and or Internet seem to suit good to meet the job of infinite and clip and besides to promote positive interaction between equals ( Resta & A ; Laferriere, 2007 ) . Nowadays, in which acquisition could take topographic point anytime and anyplace, CSCL is non merely limited to the usage of computing machine per say. It includes the usage of Internet, Web 2.0 and nomadic engineerings as good. As different scholar learn best utilizing different manners ( Woolfolk, 1993 ) , some pupils work best during the twenty-four hours whilst some perform better nocturnally, web-based larning able to supply a platform for the pupils to larn at a clip convenient to them.
In larning English, one needs to rehearse by often interacting with others because it helps to enrich one ‘s vocabulary and to hike up one ‘s assurance in utilizing the linguistic communication. Vygotsky ( 1983 ) claims that one may maximize the acquisition procedure through societal interaction with others. By utilizing Web 2.0 tools, the pupils will hold huge chances to interact with each other, be it synchronously or asynchronously, in carry throughing the acquisition activities. With Web 2.0 tools available online with small or no charge today, instructor may make practical societal infinites for the pupils to direct electronic mails, communicate in existent clip utilizing on-line confab or even edit the same papers collaboratively to promote collaborative acquisition.
The rise of Web 2.0 and its tools, societal networking sites and uprising involvement in collaborative acquisition in general are connected with the Internet to heighten one ‘s instruction. Lee and McLoughlin ( 2010 ) imply that online societal web that is based on Social Learning Environment ( SLE ) can supply a medium to promote practical societal interaction between instructor and pupils and besides between equals while at the same clip allows persons to prosecute in meaningful exchange of cognition with others. This will indirectly do the pupils to meaningfully take part in an active acquisition and bit by bit travel off from the instructor centred that is normally practiced in Malayan schoolrooms. Due to this ground, many instructors in schools have used societal networking system such every bit Facebook as an information sharing medium because it is considered as the ‘in ‘ thing amongst adolescents presents and it shows the high degree of users ‘ battle when pedagogues use the Pages application in Facebook as a medium for synchronal or asynchronous treatment. Under this context, English Language instructors in Malaysia could utilize this chance to utilize computing machine and Web 2.0 tools to help the acquisition of Literature Component and at the same clip heightening pupils ‘ argumentative cognition building.
However, while active acquisition is theoretically appealing, many pedagogues are still diffident of how to take advantage of this technique to convey out the best acquisition results for their pupils. Active acquisition, as the experts suggest, is an instructional method in which pupils are required to actively prosecute in meaningful activities and believe about what they are making in the acquisition procedure ( Bonwell, 2002 ) . On the other manus, Bonwell ( 2002 ) besides put frontward that it is besides of import to observe that merely presenting an activity to the pupils might take to failure to capture the benefits that active acquisition has to offer. This is because the activity that is non carefully designed around of import acquisition results that require active battle from the pupils will do the pupils to non able to see the intent of larning and therefore, the motive to actively take part and larn will be lessen. Here, it can be seen that inventing an active acquisition undertaking requires excessively much clip for pre-class readying and therefore, instructors might non be able to cover every bit much class content in a traditional schoolroom. Besides, big category size in Malayan schools does non assist to let active acquisition to be applied swimmingly.
One of the ways to get the better of these jobs is by using Problem Based Learning ( PBL ) into the acquisition activities being introduced to the pupils. This instructional method requires the pedagogue to plan a acquisition undertaking that is based on a job of a existent universe state of affairs and dispute the pupils to “ larn to larn ” and works hand in glove and/or collaboratively to emerge with solution to the job ( Duch, Groh & A ; Allen, 2001 ) . This is believed will supply a intent for the pupils to larn and therefore, let active acquisition to happen. In this modern universe where instruction and acquisition procedure is possible to be done irrespective of its clip and infinite, Computer Supported Collaborative Learning ( CSCL ) such as Web 2.0 tools seem appropriate to supply the pupils with a platform to actively take part and lend via online acquisition and practical certification. The usage of Web 2.0 tools in PBL activities will supply pupils with an first-class context to further active acquisition as they will collaboratively work towards work outing the given undertaking. Besides, the huge beginnings of informations background that can be obtained and shared effortlessly via online to back up their statements need to be evaluated critically ; leting the pupils to develop critical thought and job work outing accomplishments as life long scholars.
Up to this twenty-four hours, rather a figure of researches have been done to find the prosperity of certain larning results in online acquisition. However, non many researches have been done on the procedure of argumentative cognition building itself. As Malayan alumnuss are said to be missing of critical thought accomplishments and this leads to hapless communicating in English which could be due to the spoon feeding manner of instruction and acquisition that has been widely practised since simple school, it is hoped that this research that focus on incorporating Problem Based instances into Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning in a Social Learning Environment will assist to heighten pupils ‘ cognition building procedure to go critical minds.
Statement of Problem
Apart from hapless bid in English in general, Malayan alumnuss are proclaimed to be missing in footings of critical thought accomplishments particularly when it comes to pass oning thoughts or disputatiously back uping ain point of view in an educational treatment. The job could be rooted from the manner pupils learn English in simple and secondary schools. The rote memorisation of words and essay, grammar drill and repeat of exercisings evidently do non pay off when they need to use this cognition in existent life state of affairs. Here, it seems to be there is a demand to reform the manner of learning English in Malayan schools. The focal point should be to develop pupils to be independent minds and at the same clip to be able to utilize English in real-life state of affairss.
To instill critical thought accomplishments onto pupils in this modern epoch, it might be utile to develop a Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning in a Social Learning Environment that might be able to make learning state of affairss that requires argumentative cognition building procedure. Knowledge Construction Process is defined as the procedure for bespeaking the cognitive activities in seeking, construing and concluding the option and doing determination in educational treatments ( Zhu, 2006 ) . Therefore, the larning procedure should implement on pupil ‘s cognition building procedure in order to bring forth citizen with an ability to go critical minds. With the outgrowth and uprising involvement in societal web amongst adolescents today, it merely seems appropriate to incorporate Problem-Based larning into Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning in a Social Learning Environment as to promote pupils to work collaboratively and critically assisting each other out in larning the linguistic communication.
To function the intent of this survey, the research worker hopes to develop a Social Learning Environment to back up Problem Based Collaborative Learning for larning a range in Form 1 English Literature Syllabus. This survey aims to look into pupils ‘ cognition building procedure via Social Learning Environment and how does argumentative knowledge building procedure contribute towards pupils ‘ engagement in an educational treatments or Hagiographas.
To develop job based acquisition instances for larning a range in Form 1 English Literature Syllabus
To develop a Social Learning Environment ( SLE ) by utilizing Web 2.0 engineering to back up collaborative acquisition for larning a range in Form 1 English Literature Syllabus
To incorporate job based collaborative instances and Web 2.0 Social Learning Environment for larning a range in Form 1 English Literature Syllabus
To analyse secondary school pupils ‘ argumentative cognition building procedure via societal larning environment embedded within job based collaborative instances
To analyze how argumentative cognition building procedure contribute towards pupils ‘ concluding authorship in a forum treatment
To look into pupils ‘ credence towards incorporating job based collaborative instances and Social Learning Environment in larning English Literature.
What are the types of procedure involved in pupils ‘ argumentative cognition building procedure via societal environment embedded within job based instances in CSCL?
How does argumentative cognition building processes contribute towards pupils ‘ concluding authorship in a forum treatment?
What is pupils ‘ credence towards incorporating job based collaborative instances and Social Learning Environment in larning English Literature?
Rationale of the Research
Higher order believing accomplishment is of import to bring forth womb-to-tomb scholars. Critical thought accomplishment, nevertheless, can non be taught in isolation and therefore, it has to be integrated across course of study ( Nagappan, 2001 ) . In order to heighten critical thought accomplishments, pedagogues need to supply a learning state of affairs that allows active acquisition to take topographic point. Higher order believing accomplishments can besides be developed via linguistic communication acquisition. For the intent of this research, English Language is chosen as the medium to measure pupils ‘ advancement to develop their critical thought accomplishments by analyzing pupils ‘ argumentative cognition building processes throughout the collaborative treatments and concluding authorship.
Collaborative Problem Based Learning ( CPBL ) attack is chosen for this research as it seems appropriate to supply an first-class context for developing higher order believing accomplishments. This is because it requires the pupils to analytically and critically weight out others ‘ sentiments before emerges with new understanding about the capable affair. However, CPBL is about non convenient to be practised in a traditional schoolroom as it is excessively clip devouring and pupils might be burdened with extra treatments and therefore, might de-motivate some pupils to take part actively.
In this modern universe of engineering, nevertheless, the restrictions of CPBL can now be overcome by utilizing Computer Supported Collaborative Learning ( CSCL ) such as Web 2.0 tools. CSCL with an assistance of 2.0 tools is an advanced alternate manner of acquisition and it offers another platform for instructors to get the better of the clip and infinite boundaries every bit good as enable scholars to actively take part and develop critical thought and job work outing accomplishments in the acquisition procedure ( Resta & A ; Laferriere, 2007 ) . Therefore, the intent of this undertaking is to analyse secondary school pupils ‘ critical thought accomplishments via argumentative cognition building procedure through societal acquisition environment embedded within job based collaborative instances.
Significance of the Research
This research will be advantageous to:
Secondary school pupils
The acquisition procedure undergone by the pupils in this undertaking should function as the platform for a better Problem Based Learning activity within a Computer Supported Collaborative Learning in a Social Learning Environment in the hereafter. This should function as a beginning to catapult active acquisition that enhance pupils ‘ critical thought accomplishments ; a soft accomplishment that is really much needed for their hereafter callings. Besides, pupils should besides better their communicating accomplishments via synchronal and asynchronous treatments throughout this undertaking. Learning within Social Learning Environment utilizing Web 2.0 tools should besides supply them with a merriment alternate manner to go womb-to-tomb scholars, irrespective of clip and infinite which suits really good in this modern universe of engineering.
Teaching critical thought accomplishments across course of study within a traditional schoolroom is decidedly non an easy undertaking to make ( Watson, 2002 ) . This undertaking opens an alternate manner for pedagogues to instill higher order believing accomplishments into their instruction without have to worry about clip and infinite limitation. Besides, the findings on cognition building procedure via this undertaking should be able to assist school instructors to be after larning activity that aid to develop pupils ‘ critical thought accomplishments.
Critical thought accomplishment is seen as of import facet in instruction for old ages. Schools are expected to fix pupils that are well-equipped with this powerful soft accomplishment to confront the existent universe after school particularly to procure their future employability and hopefully, smooth future calling promotion ( Nagappan, 2001 ) . Due to clip and budget limitation ( Chitravelu, Sithamparan & A ; Teh, 2005 ) every bit good as big category size job that might impede the application of CPBL in traditional schoolrooms ( Bonwell, 2002 ) , the findings of using job collaborative instances and Web 2.0 Social Learning Environment in this undertaking could supply an option for schools to help instructors to instill critical thought accomplishments onto pupils via a cost effectual and clip savvy mode.
Scope and Limitation of the Research
There are many larning attacks that can be used to develop pupils ‘ higher order believing accomplishments. In this survey, nevertheless, Problem Based Learning ( PBL ) attack is chosen as this serves an first-class existent life context for the pupils to develop critical thought accomplishments in order to seek the solutions to the undertaking at manus.
To analyze the critical thought accomplishments development amongst the pupils, this survey will merely utilize Toulmin ‘s Model of argumentative cognition building. There are six elements of persuasive statements harmonizing to this theoretical account which are ; claims, evidences, warrant, backup, qualifier and rebuttal ( Kneupper, 1978 ) .
This survey is merely focused on a range on English Literature course of study as pupils ‘ advancement in footings of cognition building procedure is assessed via the linguistic communication that they use to back up their statements. English Literature is chosen as it provides the pupils with necessary aesthetic accomplishments to analytically and critically measure literature piece being reviewed.
The collaborative job based instances developed within Web 2.0 Social Learning Environment in this survey is designed for Form 1 pupils who are analyzing English Literature topic in one of the public secondary school in Johor. The pupil participants of this survey are chosen indiscriminately irrespective of their degree of proficiency in English and bid of IT skills.
The footings used throughout this survey are defined as follows:
Argumentative Knowledge Construction Process ( AKCP )
Argumentative cognition building procedure ( AKCP ) refers to the procedure in which the scholars are actively engage in peculiar discourse activities and the frequence of active engagement by seting forwards statements in interaction within groups is related to one ‘s cognition acquisition ( Andriessen, Baker, & A ; Suthers, 2003 ) .
Problem Based Learning ( PBL )
Problem Based Learning ( PBL ) is an instructional teaching method that encourages and challenges the scholars to actively prosecute in the “ existent life ” job as a larning context that initiate their involvements to larn the capable affair. The pupils are besides challenged to “ larn to larn ” and hand in glove working in groups to happen solutions to jobs ( Duch, Groh & A ; Allen, 2001 ) .
Social Learning Environment ( SLE )
Social Learning Environment ( SLE ) is a topographic point where persons can larn with and from others in which the participants involved collaboratively seek a significance or new understanding via formal or informal treatments or acquisition by detecting others ( Bandura 1986 ; Woolfolk, 1993 ) . This can be achieved either in individual or virtually through Web 2.0 societal media tools such as web logs, wikis, societal networking sites and societal bookmarking services.
Computer Supported Collaborative Learning ( CSCL )
Computer Supported Collaborative Learning ( CSCL ) is an instructional method that study how people can larn together with the assistance of computing machine ( Stahl et al.2006 ) . This attack does non merely restricted to telegraph personal computing machines, but besides including other advanced engineerings such as Web 2.0 tools and nomadic engineerings.
Web 2.0, as defined by O’Reilly ( 2007 ) is web as the base of multiple affiliated devices in which its applications makes the most usage of this platform to present a continually-updated package which merely acquiring better when more consumers utilizing it by supplying their ain informations and remixing informations from multiple beginnings. He farther describes Web 2.0 as “ architecture of engagement ” and can present better user experiences more than Web 1.0 can offer. Web 2.0 tools offer its user with many utile online applications such as web logs, wikis, labeling and societal bookmarking, folksonomy, Google AdSense, Flickr and many others synergistic applications.
Toulmin ‘s Model ( TM )
Toulmin ‘s Model ( TM ) is a strategy that layout the templet of influential tools for analysis of statements and presents the functional relationships between them ( Toulmin, 1958 ) . The chief constituents identified in Toulmin ‘s Model are known as informations, claim, warrants, backup, qualifiers and rebuttals.
Lack in footings of higher order believing accomplishments and hapless communicating accomplishments are rated as the highest causes of Malayan alumnuss and school departers to fight to execute good in their callings and even unemployed ( Gurvinder Kaur & A ; Sharan Kaur, 2009 ) . Therefore, in order to accomplish Vision 2020, Malaysia instruction system is bit by bit accommodating critical thought accomplishments across its course of study as to bring forth critical minds and womb-to-tomb scholars. This is believed due to our instruction system which is traditionally excessively teacher centred and based on memorisation and repeated boring to accomplish higher classs. As a consequence, the merchandises of Malaysia instruction system largely appear as inactive receiving systems of cognition and are missing in footings of higher order believing accomplishments.
In order to bring forth life long scholars that posses higher order believing accomplishments and good joint in back uping their statements, the instruction and larning methods should travel off from being excessively teacher centred. This could merely go on when the pupils actively prosecute in the acquisition procedure ( Nagappan, 2001 ) . One of the solutions to get the better of this job is by using Problem Based Learning attack. While PBL sounds plausible to help the development of critical thought accomplishments, its application in a traditional schoolroom ever look excessively taxing to be achieved successfully ( Watson, 2002 ) . Hence, this survey adopts job based collaborative instances and Web 2.0 Social Learning Environment for larning a range in Form 1 English Literature Syllabus to analyze pupils ‘ argumentative cognition building procedure based on Toulmin ‘s Model.
In this survey, the research worker hopes to analyse secondary school pupils ‘ argumentative cognition building procedure via societal larning environment embedded within job based collaborative instances. The research worker besides wants to happen out how argumentative cognition building processes contribute towards pupils ‘ concluding authorship in a forum treatment. This survey is hoped will supply as an alternate manner of transfusing higher order believing accomplishments onto pupils as they actively take part throughout the acquisition activities.