In this chapter, the research worker reviews several facets of the literature environing factors impacting pupils ‘ academic public presentation. First, the relationship that exists between factors and pupils ‘ academic public presentation, which is the footing of this survey, is examined. This is followed by a reappraisal of past surveies pertinent to the research and a elaborate account of the conceptual models that underlie the survey. It is hoped that on completion of the undertaking, some penetrations may be gained into the job from a planetary position.
Most pupils acquiring into MBBS plan have a good academic path record upon entry into the medical school. In Malayan medical school it is observed that each twelvemonth about 10-15 % of pupils have trouble in finishing their medical class on clip and this is a concerned to medical pedagogues and decision makers. It is of import to cognize the grounds why there is a pronounced alteration in their academic once they come to professional classs particularly medicine. Clearly, there are legion cognitive and non-cognitive factors that have a much stronger influence on medical pupils ‘ academic public presentation. Identifying the factors associated with pupils ‘ academic public presentation or academic accomplishment in the medical class will enable the medical pedagogues, course of study contriver and policy marker to put up support systems to assist them execute better.
Many surveies are carried out to research factors impacting pupils ‘ academic public presentation or accomplishment. All of the research reviews back up the hypothesis that pupils ‘ public presentation in the medical programme depend on different socio-economic and psychological factors ( Syed Tahir Hijazi & A ; Raza Naqri, 2006 ) . Medical pupils are chief assets of the medical schools or colleges. In position of that, the pupils ‘ academic public presentation and accomplishment dramas an of import function in bring forthing the best quality alumnuss who will go great leader and work force for the state therefore responsible for the states economic and societal development. The public presentation of pupils in universities should be a concern non merely to the decision makers and pedagogues, but besides to corporations in the labor market.
Literature Review on Factors Affecting Students ‘ Performance
Up to day of the month many surveies have been developed refering the factors influence pupils ‘ public presentation such as demographic, active acquisition, pupil attending, extracurricular activities, and equals influence and class appraisal. A reappraisal of the literature have indicated that pupil attitudes toward survey, survey wonts and strategic acquisition, pupil psychological features, larning manner, household background, instructors function and many others are closely related to pupils ‘ academic public presentation ( Eccles & A ; Wigfield, 1985 ; Eccles & A ; Harold, 1993 ; Hanson, 1994, Ali et al.,2009 ) . Gough and Hall ( 1964 ) mentioned that anticipation of pupil public presentation in the medical school can be made by mean of the California Psychological Inventory ( CPI ) and this is supported by Tutton survey in 1993. Other instruments such as Eysenek Personality Inventory or the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory greatly enhanced the anticipation of pupils ‘ public presentation in the medical school ( Roesslet, et al. , 1978 ; Lipton et al. , 1984 ; Weiss, 1988 ) .
In this survey the literature hunt for factors impacting pupils ‘ academic public presentation will be concentrated on pupil ‘s features, parent ‘s features, teacher ‘s features and college factors.
Student ‘s characteristic and academic public presentation
What are the cardinal factors that promote academic success among pupils whose single features place them at high hazard of failure in the medical programme? Much research in recent old ages has focused on placing the cardinal factors in the pupil features that promotes academic success. Qualities such as psychological demands and societal accomplishments, viz. self-efficacy, motive, attitudes and behavior, academic competence, communicating accomplishments, coaction, cooperation, and squad capablenesss are of import for the pupil in the medical programme. Students who possess these accomplishments are able to work efficaciously with others and managed their surveies expeditiously ( Lust & A ; Moore, 2006 ) . The medical colleges could aim these factors in developing schemes in bettering pupil acquisition and better their academic public presentation. Harmonizing to Womble ( 2003 ) academic competency, self-efficacy, motive, pupils ‘ attitudes and behavior, clip direction and battle in category activities are some of the factors that affect an persons ‘ academic public presentation.
188.8.131.52 Academic Competence
Kleijn et Al ( 1994 ) pointed out that academic competency is associated with pupils ‘ ability to pull off their survey burden, i.e. pupil with better academic competency would likely hold better academic public presentation. Review into the literatures has indicated that the accomplishments, attitudes, and behaviours lending to academic competency autumn into one of two spheres: ( I ) Academic Skills or ( two ) Academic Enablers ( DiPerna and Elliott, 1999 ) .
Academic Skills Subscales
Reading/Language Humanistic disciplines
Academic Enablers Subscales
Figure 2.1: Academic Competence Model ( DiPerna & A ; Elliot, 1999 )
DiPernia and Elliot theoretical account ( 1999 ) stated the followers:
Motivation reflects a pupil ‘s attack, continuity, and degree of involvement sing academic topics.
Battle reflects attending and active engagement in schoolroom activities.
Study accomplishments are behaviours that facilitate the processing of new stuff and pickings trials
Interpersonal accomplishments include concerted acquisition behaviors necessary to interact with others
In the survey by Demaray and Elliot ( 1998 ) it can be conclude that instructors are able in foretelling their pupils ‘ accomplishment on standardised trials such as academic competency rating graduated table and separating between pupils with low or high academic public presentation. In decision, holding a good academic competency will therefore heighten the pupils ‘ ability to pull off their survey burden and to be successful in their survey. In this survey, academic competency is defined as a multidimensional concept composed of the accomplishments, attitudes, and behaviors of the pupil that contribute to academic success in the category.
Student ‘s attitudes toward survey
Most cognitive theoreticians and research workers have acknowledged that hapless academic self-concept, low self-pride, negative attitudes toward survey, or erroneous perceptual experiences of pupils may be associated with hapless academic public presentation ( van der Veer & A ; Valsiner, 1991 ) . In another survey by Syed Tahir Hijaz and Raza Naqri ( 2006 ) , they found that attitude towards survey has a important influence on scrutiny public presentation and therefore confirmed the earlier findings by new wave der Veer and Valsinere ( 1991 ) .
Battle in larning – There is significant grounds that battle in medical school or college is of import in advancing pupil success and acquisition and that a figure of factors in the college environment foster high degrees of battle. Student battle can be defined as the degree of engagement and intrinsic involvement that a pupil shows in college ( Newmann, 1992 ) . Battle in college involves both behaviors ( such as continuity, attempt, attending ) and attitudes ( such as motive, positive acquisition values, involvement, and pride in success ) ( Connell & A ; Wellborn, 1991 ) . Connell and Wellborn indicates that engaged pupils seek out activities, indoors and outside the schoolroom, that lead to success and this has been supported by Dowson and McInerney ( 2001 ) . It has been showed that the occupied pupils learn more, retain more, and bask larning activities more than pupils who are non engaged and they are the most successful ( Kirsch et al, 2002 ) . Many school-level surveies have identified higher degrees of pupil battle as of import forecasters of tonss on the pupils ‘ academic public presentation. Therefore, it can be concluded that the more the pupil engaged in larning the more successful they will be in their academic.
Class attending and academic public presentation – Class attending is believed to hold positive relationship with pupils ‘ academic public presentation. It was expected that high absentees from the category would hold a negative consequence on the pupil ‘s academic classs and would diminish their scrutiny tonss and classs. Many research workers recognized that category attending is an of import facet in bettering pupil ‘s public presentation. A survey conducted by Collett et al. , 2007 ; Stanca, 2006 ; Chow, 2003 ; Rodgers, 2001 ; Durden and Ellis, 1995 ; Romer 1993, found that attending have little, but statistically important, consequence on pupil public presentation. Marburger ( 2001 ) concluded that pupils who missed category were significantly more likely to react falsely to inquiries associating to material covered that twenty-four hours than were pupils who were present. Moore ( 2006 ) indicated that category attending enhances larning ; on norm, pupils who came to the most categories made the highest classs, despite the fact that they received no points for coming to category. Arulampalam et Al. ( 2007 ) found that there is a causal consequence of absence on public presentation for pupils: losing category leads to poorer public presentation. On the other manus, Martins and Walker ( 2006 ) mentioned that there are no important effects from category attending. This is besides supported by Park and Kerr ( 1990 ) and Schmidt ( 1993 ) who found an opposite relationship between pupils ‘ attending and their class classs. Jennjou Chen ( 2006 ) , in his survey “ Class attending and exam public presentation: A randomised experiment ” , found that category attending has produced a positive and important impact on pupils ‘ test public presentation. His consequence revealed that, on norm, go toing talk corresponds to a 7.66 % betterment in exam public presentation. Most universities has taken into serious consideration respect per centum of category attending and hence imposed a policy of excluding the pupil from scrutiny when the per centum of the attending is less than 80 % .
Self-efficacy and motive
Self-efficacy is how people feel about themselves and how much they like themselves, particularly socially and academically when it comes to college pupils. Through the many force per unit areas and dashing duties of being a pupil, one learns and understands the importance of holding a high self-efficacy in college. Having one ‘s academic accomplishment meet one ‘s academic outlooks and desires is a major key to most college pupils ‘ self-efficacy. Having a high self-efficacy has many positive effects and benefits, particularly among college pupils. Students who feel positive about themselves succumb less easy to force per unit areas of conformance by equals, are more relentless at hard undertakings, are happier and more sociable, and most pertinent to this survey is that they tend to execute better academically.
On the other manus, college pupils with a low self-efficacy tend to be unhappy, less sociable and are more vulnerable to depression, which are all correlated with lower academic accomplishment ( Wiggins, 1994 ) . Academic accomplishment is influenced by sensed competency, venue of control, liberty, and motive ( Wiest, 1998 ) .
Past research has shown that self-efficacy and academic accomplishment correlative straight to a moderate grade ( Wiggins, 1994 ) . Self-efficacy surveies are really popular for educational research and it has been shown that it played a really of import function in academic accomplishment ( Oxford et al. , 1993 ) . During the past decennary, self-efficacy beliefs have received increasing attending in educational research, chiefly in the country of academic motive ( Pintrich & A ; Schunk, 1995 ) .
In the instance of instruction, self-efficacy is seen to hold a relationship with attempt, continuity and accomplishment. Chemers, Hu & A ; Garcia ( 2001 ) , in their work on mathematical job resolution, have shown that kids with higher self-efficacy strived for longer periods and used more effectual job work outing schemes than pupils with lower self-efficacy.
Surveies have investigated the relationships among efficaciousness beliefs, related psychological concepts, and academic motive and accomplishment. Findingss besides support Bandura ‘s ( 1986 ) contention that efficaciousness beliefs mediate the consequence of accomplishments or other self-beliefs on subsequent public presentation by act uponing attempt, continuity, and doggedness ( Bandura & A ; Schunk, 1981 ; Lent, Brown, & A ; Larkin, 1984 ; Schunk & A ; Hanson, 1985 ; Bouffard Bouchard, 1990 ) . Berry ( 1987 ) stressed that self-efficacy enhances pupils ‘ memory public presentation by heightening continuity. In the surveies by Lent et Al ( 1984 and 1986 ) demonstrated that college pupils with high self-efficacy achieved high academic accomplishment. Research workers have established that self-efficacy is a strong forecaster of academic public presentation accomplishment ( Pintrich & A ; De Groot, 1990 ; Multon et al. , 1991 ; Zimmerman et al. , 1992 ; Pajares & A ; Miller, 1994 ) . Researches besides show that self-efficacy beliefs have positive effects on pupil motive and academic public presentation.
Strategic Studying Techniques
Strategic analyzing techniques may assist pupils accomplish a higher mark in the scrutiny. Strategic analyzing is defined as the cognition and application of effectual survey accomplishments or techniques by the pupils ( Kleijn et al, 1994 ) . There are many efficient survey techniques that could be used by pupils based on the acquisition environment ( Alvermann, 1991 and Ogle, 1986 ) . These survey schemes include Know-Want-Learn ( K-W-L ) , Survey-Question-Read-Recite-Review ( SQ3R ) , sum uping and note-taking, utilizing artworks, and self-questioning. Extensive class tonss and the comprehensive information covered in today ‘s medical course of study necessitate the usage of effectual survey schemes for academic success ( Lay, 1993 ) .
Active acquisition has received notably attending over the past several old ages. In the context of the college schoolroom, active larning involves pupils in making things and believing about the things they are making ( Bonwell & A ; Eison, 1991 ) . In the medical programme active acquisition involves the pupils to work out jobs, answer inquiries, formulate inquiries of their ain, discuss, explain, argument, or insight during category. Bonwell and Eison ( 1991 ) concluded that active larning leads to better pupil attitudes and betterments in pupils ‘ thought and authorship. A survey by Wilke ( 2003 ) besides indicated pupils in both the intervention and control groups demonstrated a positive attitude toward active acquisition, believed it helped ( or would assist ) pupils to larn the stuff. Felder et Al. ( 2000 ) recommended that active acquisition is one of the acquisition scheme methods that work. In add-on, Felder and Brent ( 2003 ) mentioned that every bit small as five proceedingss of active acquisition in a 50-minute category session can bring forth a major encouragement in larning. Harmonizing to them, active acquisition aftermaths pupils up. However, DeLong ‘s ( 2008 ) survey did non back up the hypothesis that active acquisition based learning methods will impact positive alteration on pupil public presentation as measured by class concluding class and non-intellectual acquisition factors as measured by the TRAC-R ( Test of Reactions and Adaptations to College-Revised ) , an overall step of college accommodation. He found that factors such as professor-student resonance and professor apprehension of non-intellectual factors may hold influenced the current consequences.
Another factor associated with strategic analyzing technique is clip direction accomplishment. Time direction accomplishments are besides of import to academic success. Time direction accomplishments include activities performed by pupils such as planning in progress, prioritising work, trial readying, and following agendas ( Kirscenabaum & A ; Perri, 1982 ) . Balancing clip direction and survey techniques may accomplish higher academic public presentation efficaciously ( Entwistle & A ; Ramsden, 1983 ; Powell, 2004 ) . Syed Tahir Hijazi and Raza Naqri ( 2006 ) in their survey found that attitude towards clip allotment for survey has a important influence on scrutiny public presentation, i.e. the longer continuance of clip allotment in surveies improved the public presentation mark.
Learning manner – One of the statements often put frontward to explicate why some pupils do non make every bit good in their academic is because they do non cognize how to analyze. Ramsden and Entwistle ( 1981 ) have shown that following right acquisition manners do influence good accomplishment in scrutiny. Learning manner predict public presentation in medical school ( McManus et al, 1998 ) . Heidi and Stephen ( 2006 ) mentioned that medical pupils do hold different methods of larning manners and following this learning manner as one of the methods of strategic analyzing will act upon their academic public presentation. Therefore, Blackmore ( 1996 ) suggested that it is of import for pedagogues to develop appropriate acquisition attacks for the pupils and to promote them to follow this preferable acquisition manner as their strategic analyzing techniques.
Family background factors such as the educational degree of the parent, household income or fiscal, parent support and educational outlook seem to exercise some influence on pupil ‘s academic accomplishment and this has been supported by several yesteryear and recent surveies ( Hossler & A ; Stage, 1992 ; Eccles & A ; Harold, 1993 ; Beyer, 1995 ; Paulson, 1996 ; Hossler et al. , 1999 ; Checchi, 2000 ; Ermisch & A ; Francesconi, 2001 ; Agus & A ; Makhbul, 2006 ) .
The relationships of parent degree of instruction, parent educational outlook for their kids, parental engagement and support and pupils ‘ accomplishment are proposed by the Chen ‘s Model of household influence s on pupil academic accomplishment ( Chen, 1995 ) .
Table 2.1: A Proposed Model of Family Influences on Students ‘ Academic Performance Achievement
( Adapted from Chen ( 1995 )
Children ‘s Results
Books at place
Facilities such as computing machine
Attitudes toward medical instruction
Assurance in survey
Parent outlooks and engagement
Attitudes toward medical instruction
The literature reappraisal will look into the influence of these household factors on the pupils ‘ public presentation in deepness.
Influence of parent ‘s instruction degree on pupil ‘s academic public presentation
In the earlier surveies, Hossler and Stage ( 1992 ) and Beyer ( 1995 ) indicated that there is a positive relationship between the parent ‘s educational degree and their kids success in their academic. In an extension to the earlier survey, Ermisch and Francesconi ( 2001 ) found an interesting determination in their survey where there is important gradient between each parent ‘s instruction degree and their kid ‘s educational accomplishment. From Ermisch and Rrancesconi study it can be concluded that female parent ‘s instruction has a stronger association with her kid ‘s educational accomplishment than the instruction of the male parent. This consequence is supported by Agus and Makhbul ( 2002 ) . In another survey by Syed Tahir Hijazi and Raza Naqri ( 2006 ) they indicate that the degree of instruction of female parent has been found to exercise the strongest influence on academic accomplishment as compared to degree of instruction of male parent. Mothers ‘ educational degree is chosen because literatures suggest that female parent ‘s degree of instruction is a stronger forecaster of kids ‘s larning results ( PISA, 2000 ) . Studies has besides shown that pupils whose female parents have completed third instruction performed even better in their academic than hose whose female parents have completed secondary instruction degree. From the literature hunt on the impact of parent ‘s instruction degree on pupil ‘s public presentation female parent ‘s instruction degree is a strongest forecaster factor and it was assumed that educated female parents can assist their kids to better and maintain proper cheque on their activities. This survey is undertaken to look into the influence of the parent ‘s degree of instruction on the pupil ‘s public presentation within the Malayan context.
Family income and pupil ‘s academic public presentation
The United States Department of Education ( 2000 ) found in a survey that the relationship between household income and pupil ‘s public presentation is non simple and direct. Johnson ( 1996 ) opined that low income of parent is a major hindrance to academic success and development on the portion of the pupils. This is because poorness or low income of parents has elastic effects on their kids academic plants as they lack adequate resources and financess to patronize their educational demands and this leads to hapless public presentation of their kids.
An probe conducted by Agus and Makhbul ( 2002 ) indicated that pupils from households of higher income degrees perform better in their academic public presentation as compared to those who come from households of lower income brackets. Checchi ( 2000 ) besides concluded household income provides an inducement for better pupil public presentation ; richer parents internalise this affect by puting more resources in the instruction of their kids. Once the investing is undertaken, the pupil fulfill parents ‘ outlooks by perform better in their surveies. Based on the research done by him, he demonstrated that kids from richer households perform better than those from poorer households. On the other manus, Syed Tahir Hijazi and Raza Naqvi ( 2006 ) found that there is negative relationship between pupil public presentation and pupil household income. Research done by Beblo and Lauer ( 2004 ) besides found that parents ‘ income and their labor market position have a weak impact on kids ‘s instruction. With these conflicting findings the inquiry to be answered is ‘Do household income is an issue to pupils ‘ accomplishment in academic? ‘ To research the correlativity between household income and pupils ‘ academic public presentation the intent of this survey is to prove the hypothesis that household fiscal position is associated with the academic public presentation of a medical pupil in the Malaysia.
Parent engagement, educational outlook and support
Other household factors that may act upon pupils ‘ academic accomplishment are parental engagement, educational outlook and support ( Paulson, 1996 ) . Harmonizing to Eccles and Harold ( 1993 ) active engagement from the parents in their kids instruction plays a critical function in the pupil ‘s academic accomplishment and success. Eccles and Harold determination is supported by the surveies from Beyer ( 1995 ) and Paulson and Marchant ( 1998 ) .
Involving parents in the instruction of their kids straight affects pupil accomplishment in school, college and university. It has been shown that affecting parents in the instruction of their kids helps to increase the pupil ‘s accomplishment and self-pride.
Fehrmann et Al ( 1987 ) examines the effects of parental engagement on a larger sample of high school pupils and formulated that the more intensively parents are involved in their kids education the more good are the achievement effects. This finding holds true for all types of types and ages of pupils and is supported by the survey of Henderson ( 1987 ) . All research surveies, which address these countries, found that parent engagement has positive effects on pupil attitudes and behavior ( Sattes, 1985 ; Ferhrman et al. , 1978 ; Henderson, 1987 ) .
The pupils ‘ perceptual experience of parent educational outlook and support for acquisition has a strong impact on their accomplishment ( Mau & A ; Bikos, 2000 ) . Harmonizing to Beyer ( 1995 ) parent ‘s educational aspirations for and outlooks of their kids ‘s academic public presentation positively correlates with the kids ‘s classs, educational aspirations, motive. Beyer farther indicated that these parental factors encourage self-esteem and actuate the pupils to execute good in their academic. In drumhead, most of the surveies reviewed indicate that pupils from households with high outlooks and support would hold higher academic accomplishments.
Teachers ‘ outlook and support
The outlooks instructors have for their pupils and the premises they make about their possible have a touchable consequence on pupil accomplishment. Since the late 1960 ‘s research workers have been concerned with the influence of instructor outlooks on pupil public presentation. Study by Bamburg ( 1994 ) clearly establishes that instructor outlooks do play a important function in finding how good and how much do pupils larn. Students tend to internalise the beliefs instructor have about their ability. This is supported by Raffini ( 1993 ) who clearly stated that when instructors believe in pupils, the pupils believe in themselves and this understanding between pupils and instructors is a important subscriber for the pupil success in their academic accomplishment. There is a inclination for instructors to acquire what they expect from their pupils. This happens because instructors have ( frequently unconscious ) inclinations to handle pupils otherwise based on how likely they think it is that pupils will be successful. Conversely, when pupils are viewed as lacking in ability or motive and are non expected to do important advancement, they tend to follow this perceptual experience of themselves ( Gonder, 1991 ) . Omatoni and Omatoni ( 1996 ) make a point that holding high outlook does non as if by magic equalize pupils ‘ innate abilities and larning rates. Therefore, instructors were advised to routinely project attitudes, beliefs, outlook to the extent that they treat their pupils as if they already are eager scholar and these instructors ‘ features will promote the pupil to go more eager scholars. This survey will look into instructor anticipation effects on the academic accomplishment of medical pupils.
Factors in the college environment that support pupils ‘ academic public presentation
Quaglia and Perry ( 1996 ) and Wilson ( 1992 ) have investigated the significance of the school or college environment on the pupils ‘ academic public presentation. It has been documented that factors in the school or college environment may impede or back up pupil ‘s development and academic success ( Esposito, 1999 ; Goodenow, 1993 ; Mouton & A ; Hawkins, 1996 ) .
Assorted surveies had been done and found that equals influence does hold impact on pupil public presentation ( Hanushek et. Al, 2002 ; Goethals, 2001 ; Gonzales et. al. , 1996 ) and besides been shown that equal influence has more powerful effects. Peer support was positively related to pupils ‘ scrutiny mark and class. Wilkinson and Fung ( 2002 ) in their survey concluded that by grouping pupils in heterogenous larning ability ( low ability pupils grouped with high ability pupils ) will demo an betterment in larning procedure and outcomes. This determination can be argued tap top pupils can positively impact less able pupils by supplying an aid and mentoring. In another survey, Schindler ( 2003 ) found that blending abilities will impact weak pupils positively nevertheless the consequence for good pupils is negative. Schindler determination is beliing with Goethals ( 2001 ) survey, who found that pupils in homogenous group ( irrespective of high ability or low ability ) perform better than pupils in heterogenous group. Supporting the findings from Fung ( 2002 ) and Schindler ( 2003 ) , Giuliodori, Lujan and DiCarlo ( 2006 ) added that equal interaction could increase pupil ability on work outing problem-solving inquiries and the equal direction will besides advance pupil ‘s engagement and better pupil ‘s public presentation.
Challenging educational environment
Research shows that pupils are more motivated to larn when instructors ask them to wrestle with new constructs, explain their logical thinking, defend their decisions, or explore alternate schemes and solution ( National Research Council, 1999 ) . Furthermore, pupils enjoy larning more when their instructors employ active pedagogical schemes. Meece suggested that when schoolroom direction draws on pupils ‘ pre-existing cognition and real-life experiences the acquisition session will be become more interesting and basking which consequence in the pupil learn more better and achieved better classs in scrutiny and academic ( Meece, 1991 ) . Cohen ( 1994 ) strengthen this determination that when pupils can set their caputs together instead than work in isolation they are receptive to disputing assignments which will straight hike their public presentation.
Summary of Literature Review
Factors impacting pupil ‘s academic public presentation is an of import issue in higher instruction particularly in the medical programme. There has been extended research on the influences of cardinal factors on pupils ‘ academic public presentation. It is interesting to observe that all of the research reviews back up the hypothesis that pupils ‘ public presentation in their academic depend on different socio-economic, psychological and environmental factors. A reappraisal of the literature indicated that pupils ‘ acquisition manner, household background, pupils ‘ feature, and school or college experience factors are related to pupils ‘ academic public presentation.