Education, whether as cognition in basic accomplishments, academicals, proficient, subject or citizenship is nowadays the most cardinal issue discussed in all societies throughout the universe. Education is non merely the accretion of facts but besides the development of logic and sensible thought accomplishments which will enable people to utilize their cognition in a assortment of application jobs. Education prepares an person to go a fully-fledged citizen, aware of his rights and witting of the right behavior. The formation of an person into a complete and respectable citizen is a life-long procedure which takes its root at place and from personal experiences within the educational system and at work. Education besides enables societal interaction among people of different ages, cultural groups and races. Therefore instruction provides the footing for a common apprehension and credence among different people. This will subsequently assist the person to accommodate himself absolutely to people in society, whether it is work or his vicinity. Education besides imparts cognition of the societal ailments, such as drugs, intoxicant and harlotries. In Mauritius, the Ministry of Education and Human Resources aims at sensitizing our kids at a really immature age so that they can go a good citizen.
The educational system in Mauritius is mostly based on the British School system. After the independency of our island Sir Seewoosagur Ramgoolam promoted free instruction and therefore allowed everyone to hold equal right to instruction and now schooling is compulsory up to the age of 16. This twelvemonth the authorities has allocated Rs 4,208 million to instruction. This represents 11 % of the National budget.
Our educational system is divided into pre-primary, primary, secondary and third instruction. We must observe that instruction at all the degrees are governed by the Education Act 1996, amended in 2001. It states that all kids should go to primary school and neglecting to make so the responsible party will be apt to pay a all right or may even confront imprisonment [ 4 ] .
The Ministry of Education and Human Resources ( officially Ministry of Education and Scientific research ) manages and controls all actions related to the proviso of instruction in Mauritius. Its chief duties are to supply free pre-primary and primary instruction, to supply admittance to all kids in the Republic of Mauritius to secondary instruction and to advance the third sector. The Mauritius Examination Syndicate ( MES ) is responsible to carry on all national scrutinies.
The schools in Mauritius are distributed in four zones ; the first zone is Port Louis/North, secondly we have Upper Plaine Wilhems/East, thirdly we have lower Plaine Wilhems/South and the fouth zone is Quatre Bornes/West. Pre-primary instruction in Mauritius starts at the age of 3. Pre-primary instruction is provided by both authorities tally schools and private assisted schools. However, more than 75 % of the pre-primary schools in Mauritius are in private run [ 4 ] . Primary instruction starts at the age of six. In order to successfully finish the primary instruction one needs to go through a national scrutiny, Certificate of Primary Education ( CPE ) . One can get down secondary and prevocational instruction in Mauritius after go throughing the CPE scrutiny [ 1 ] . Below is a table demoing the tendencies of consequences for the past old ages for the CPE scrutiny in the Republic of Mauritius ( Mauritius, Rodrigues and Agalega ) .
68.13Table 1.1 Certificate of Primary Education Examination ( CPE ) consequences by sex ( School campaigners merely ) , Republic of Mauritius Year 2006-2010 [ 2 ] .
After finishing their primary instruction, pupils are automatically admitted to the secondary degree of instruction, which continues further for the following seven old ages. However, at the terminal of five twelvemonth, pupils need to take the School Certificate scrutiny. In 2009, 77.64 % of 17498 campaigners passed the Cambridge School Certificate. The Higher School Certificate continues for another two old ages and this grade the terminal of secondary instruction. In 2009, the figure of pupils who took portion in the Higher School Certificate scrutiny is 9490 pupils and the base on balls rate is 78.77 % . Scholarships are awarded to the best pupils in four Fieldss: Science, Economics, Art and Technical.
Post-secondary instruction in Mauritius is promoted by the Tertiary Education institutes. A In Mauritius there are two universities in the populace sector, viz. the University of Mauritius ( UoM ) and the University of Technology Mauritius ( UTM ) . Both run undergraduate and graduate student programmes. PhD is besides provided in a scope of subjects. Besides there are other two other administrations that provide sheepskin, grade and classs, they are the Mauritius Institute of Education ( MIE ) and Mahatma Gandhi Institute ( MGI ) . The MIE offered preparation to school instructors in plan ranging from certification, sheepskin and the PGCE.There are three Polytechnic institutes, managed by the Technical School Management Trust Fund. They run programmes at the certification and sheepskin degrees within the public sector. These are the Sir Guy Forget Lycee Polytechnique, the Swami Dayanand Institute of Management, and the “ Institut Superieur de Technologie ” .A
Figure 1.1 Structure of the instruction system [ 4 ] .
The focal point of this undertaking is pre-primary instruction. Pre-primary instruction ( or Early on Childhood Education ) refers to the phase of instruction before primary school for kids. It lays an of import base for life-long acquisition and whole individual development. It articulates with primary, secondary and third instruction to finish the instruction system in about all states of the universe.
The pre-primary phase of instruction is considered as one of the most of import and most critical of all phases in the proper development of a kid whether is in the emotional, behavioral or cognitive sphere. Pugh and Rohl province that the old ages between three and 10s are important as it is of the extreme importance in the kid ‘s physical, emotional and rational development.
Harmonizing to Henniger, drama is the primary agencies for larning in the early childhood schoolroom. Play stimulates imaginativeness, creativeness and the willingness to take part. Henniger besides emphasised that instructors and parents should work together in order to advance quality instruction. Learning at this immature age takes topographic point chiefly through centripetal experiences with existent universe stuffs [ 3 ] .
Many states like in USA, China, England, and France among others have elaborated particular models to work with immature kids. A course of study model is made for instructors to let them to follow the same stairss to maintain all kids in gait.
Pre-Primary Education in Mauritius
Pre-primary instruction in Mauritius plays a really of import function in the proper development of the Mauritanian kid. It is fundamentally for kids from 3 to 5 old ages old. Early childhood attention and instruction is deriving enormous importance in the state and most of the authorities run primary schools are opening up subdivisions for pre-primary instruction although most of the pre-primary schools are private 1s. Children in the age group 4 to 5 old ages old go toing a private pre-school receive a monthly capital grant of Rs 200 from the Government and as from January 2011 kids of 3 old ages old will besides have the grant of Rs 200. Out of the Rs 4,208 million ( 11 % ) allocated to instruction sector, Rs 94.1 million ( 2 % ) were for the pre-primary instruction [ 4 ] .
The Early Childhood Care and Education ( ex Pre-School Trust Fund ) was set up in 1984. Its chief purpose is to give the kids ( 3 to 5 old ages ) all agencies required for a sustainable instruction and to supply equal entree for all kids to quality pre-schooling, including those at hazard of delayed development and disablements, through a child-centered and play-based attack, with the engagement of the parents.
The figure of pre-schools has well increased in our state. In March 2009, there were 1,057 schools supplying pre-primary instruction: 1,024 in the island of Mauritius and 33 in Rodrigues. Of these schools, 803 ( 76 % ) were in private run establishments ; 182 ( 17 % ) , runing on authorities primary school premises, were administered by the Early Childhood Care and Education Authority ( Ex Pre-School Trust Fund ) and the staying 72 ( 7 % ) were administered by either Roman Catholic ( RC ) , Hindu Education governments and/or Municipal/Village Councils [ 5 ] . Both governmental schools and private schools follow the National Curriculum Framework Pre-Primary ( 3-5 old ages ) which was produced by the MIE so that all the kids are in same degree when they enter primary school.
While look intoing about pre-primary instruction in Mauritius, we have noticed some jobs which make the instructors unsatisfied. Out of 10 Government pre-primary schools, half of them are kicking that the lavatory is rather far from the pre-primary unit and therefore the immature kids have to walk a batch to travel at that place. They besides said that they need more infinite for the kids to pattern their day-to-day activities. We must observe that in authorities pre-primary schools we have 2 pre-primary categories, each comprising of 25 immature scholars. Furthermore they want to be equipped with a kitchen so as to heat the nutrient of the kids because when they bring nutrient in Tupperware the nutrient is already cold at the clip they are traveling to eat it.
Equally far as ICT is concerned, there is an acute deficiency of resources. In some schools whether private or governmental, most of the computing machines are out of usage. These computing machines were assisting the instructor to fix work for the kids. Sometimes they were used to learn kids how to utilize the assorted plans, specially Paint for them to larn and develop some of computing machine accomplishments. They besides want to a particular instructor to learn computing machine accomplishments to the kids.
ICT in Mauritius
The Government of Mauritius has actively promoted ICT since 1989. It has set up four establishments: the National Computer Board ( NCB ) , the Central Information Bureau, the State Informatics Limited and the State Training Centre Limited. The Ministry of Information and Communication Technology trades with the preparation and execution of authorities policies in the ICT Sector [ 6 ] .
Harmonizing to National Information and Communication Technology Strategic ( NICTSP ) 2007-2011 program, Mauritius is on the brink of going a cyber island [ 7 ] . Recent statistics shows that our state has 29.6 % internet incursion ratio with 380,000 cyberspace users. Following the Global Information Technology Report 2008-2009, Mauritius rank 51st place in the usage of ICT for development [ 8 ] .
Since ICT over the recent old ages is going an progressively obligatory tool in several sectors, research is being done how to present Computed Aided larning environments in pre-primary, primary, secondary and vocational instruction in Mauritanian context as we can non blindly copy the manner it is done elsewhere [ 9 ] .
National Computer Board
The NCB is administered by a board of managers under the auspices of the Ministry of Information and Communication Technology. Its vision is to be the cardinal enabler in transforming Mauritius into a Cyber island and the regional ICT hub and its mission is to e-power people, concerns and the populace sector by developing and advancing ICT and ICT- related services [ 10 ] . It provides for Universal ICT Education Programme for leaving computing machine proficiency accomplishments to the population and the Cyber Caravan which is equipped with 10 Personal computers and Internet Connection to ease ICT in the most stray countries in the island. Besides, each twelvemonth the NCB organises InfoTech to make consciousness on emerging engineerings and supply concern chances in the ICT sector [ 11 ] .
As said earlier, 2 % is allocated to pre-primary instruction but if we analysed it good, it is non plenty for such an of import stage in the life of a kid. The authorities should increase the sum allocated to pre-primary instruction but of class non at the disbursal of primary, secondary and third sector.
Nowadays more and more kids are acquainted with engineerings ( telecasting, nomadic phones, wireless, digital camera, computing machine laptop among others ) every bit shortly as they are born. Therefore it would be unrealistic to believe that kids between the age of 3 and 5 will non be able to do proper usage of IT.
The remainder of the undertaking is organised as follows. Section 2 background surveies will depict about larning countries for pre-primary instruction in the Mauritanian context and ICT in instruction in Mauritius. Section 3 viz. the literature reappraisal provides inside informations how instruction is done in different states and impact of ICT in instruction.
This chapter contains the assorted accomplishments that a immature scholar should cognize in order to get down primary school. A major portion of the resources in this subdivision semen from the National Curriculum Framework for pre-primary instruction.
The purpose of Early Childhood Care and Education ( 0-8years ) is to concentrate on the holistic development of the kid and to put a solid foundation for womb-to-tomb acquisition. It is to be noted that the Ministry of Education and Human Resources, through its Strategic Plan ( 2008-2010 ) , has proclaimed that all kids aged 3 to 5 old ages will hold to go to pre-primary school, followed by a 6-year compulsory primary schooling.
There are 6 countries of larning that pre-primary kids should get the hang before traveling to primary school.
Personal, Social and Emotional Development
Communication Language and Literacy
Expressive, Creative and Aesthetic Development
Health and Physical Development
Body and Environmental Awareness
Mathematical and Logical Thinking
Children learn these countries by playing, making activities, speaking, listening, making motions with their custodies and by larning from other kids. For a kid to larn good, the environment should be really attractive and child-centered, for illustration postings can be put all around the schoolroom to do it more lively and appealing to them.
Personal, Social and Emotional Development ( PSED )
Figure 2.1 Personal, Social and Emotional Developments
This country of acquisition is about cognizing oneself, developing a positive self-concept and edifice assurance. Children learn how to interact with friends, grownups and regard others by accepting their differences. They besides learn about cultural events and spiritual festivals which will assist them to cognize more about different faith in the state [ 12 ] .
When kids have mastered this accomplishment, they should be able to react when mentioning to their first and last name. They should besides dress and undress by themselves and eat skillfully. Different schemes can be used in this country of larning like presentations, stories/songs, mummers, group work and dramatisation
The kids are assessed by being observed by their instructors. Through observation the instructors assess the behavior of the kids inside the schoolroom. These observations are reported in the signifier of anecdotal study and these records help the instructor for future planning and program follow-up activities [ 12 ] .
Communicationss, Language and Literacy ( CLL )
Figure 2.2 Communications, Language and Literacy Areas
During childhood, development proficiency in the female parent lingua is of the extreme importance as linguistic communication is the cardinal to knowledge acquisition. Our mother-tongue is Creole. It is used in pre-primary instruction but English and French are used more. The Ministry of Education and Human Resources is be aftering to present Creole as an optional linguistic communication in instruction. Children who can non get by with the troubles of get the hanging reading, composing and numbering will utilize the female parent lingua to get the hang rudimentss, and they can reassign the basic accomplishments to other categories they follow at school [ 14 ] . Therefore the pre-school pedagogues can utilize Creole to assist the kids understand get the hanging basic accomplishments.
Children learn to utilize linguistic communication in order to pass on their experiences and feelings in different state of affairs. They develop their unwritten ( listening/speaking ) and written accomplishments ( reading/written ) by being involved in different activities such as take parting in synergistic games, listening to narratives and singing. In this country, appraisal of the kid is made by detecting him or her. The public presentation indexs can be used to assist out the instructor to profile the kids ‘s linguistic communication ability that is whether the kid is being able to pass on and portion his/her feelings [ 12 ] .
Computer can be used to supply some synergistic educational games to the kids like leting them to distinguishing forms and giving them a mark at the terminal. Besides, with the aid of computing machine, instructors can do the kids listen to narratives by supplying them with images and pictures.
Expressive, Creative and Aesthetic Development ( ECAD )
Figure 2.3 ECAD Different Skills
In this country the kids are encouraged to utilize their creativeness by researching different art media in their environment. Through art, kids can show their emotion and feelings and appreciate different things by utilizing media, music, storytelling and motion. Human values play a basic portion in the all-around development of a kid. It has been included in pre-primary instruction as it is of import that the kid know about moral values and moralss in line with the enormous advancement of scientific discipline and engineering [ 12 ] .
Appraisal in this country will be growing oriented. The construct of appraisal should be based on a wide comprehensive construct concerned with a assortment of tools and techniques and all facets of the kid ‘s growing. The pedagogue ‘s observation will be the chief tool for appraisal and will function both formative and diagnostic accomplishment intents [ 12 ] .
Computer can assist a batch in this country of acquisition. Children can utilize pigment to be able to pull and color different forms. Besides, music and beat can be played utilizing the computing machine at the same supplying a ocular facet to them.
Health and Physical Development ( HPD )
Figure 2.4 Different Skills in HPD
Young kids are active scholars so they need to develop a healthy criterion of life by cultivating good wonts. By understanding basic wellness and safety issues, they can protect themselves against many dangers. Appropriate preparation and synchronism of the organic structure and centripetal maps plays a critical function in kids ‘s acquisition as it can efficaciously develop their concentration and observation abilities and therefore assist to increase their assurance. So the kids should be able to pattern external respiration exercisings, engage in active drama such as running, jumping, chasing, and traveling to music. They should be able to finish 6 pieces puzzle, manage toileting, carry objects, and safely negotiate stepss, kerbs and uneven surfaces.
The pedagogues will detect the kids ‘s engagement, responses and use during larning activities. The instructors keep records of the kids public presentation which will assist them to measure the kids subsequently.
Body and Environmental Awareness ( BEA )
Figure 2.5 BEA different accomplishments
Childs are really funny by nature. They want to cognize more about their organic structure and the environment. They besides develop consciousness about the five senses that is sight, hearing, gustatory sensation, odor and touch. They besides learn about workss, animate beings, populating things and simple events happening in the environment. The chief purpose here is to assist the kids to develop of import scientific discipline procedure accomplishments like detecting, sorting, form seeking, speculating, deducing and foretelling [ 12 ] .
Furthermore, since their early old ages kids are surrounded by engineering whether telecasting, wireless, nomadic phones and computing machines, so they need to cognize the importance of all these engineering at a immature age.
Appraisal of the kids ‘s acquisition in this country would be through observation the kids engagement, responses and use during larning activities like pulling and function drama.
Mathematical and Logical Thinking ( MLT )
Figure 2.6 MLT different acquisition accomplishments
Mathematicss helps kids to do sense of their universe and to develop logical and rational thought. Mathematicss at pre-primary degree comprises activities and drama. At the immature scholar should be able to get the hang the names of some common colorss ( ruddy, bluish, xanthous, green… ) , the names of basic forms ( circle, trigon, rectangle and square ) . They should besides be able to do comparing between little and large objects, count 1 to 5 or 6 or 7 or the other Numberss and gauge the volume required ( e.g. in footings of cups ) . Besides they should be able to utilize the construct of clip like twenty-four hours, dark, forenoon, afternoon among others [ 12 ] .
The appraisal of kids ‘s acquisition has to be conducted in a echt acquisition environment. The analysis of kids ‘s public presentation is carried out by observation by seeing if the kids are being able to make simple mathematics computations and distinction of forms.
A web site can be of great aid in this accomplishment as simple mathematical computation and acquisition of different forms can be integrated in it and therefore kids can entree it at place or at school. Teachers can acquire ideas how to learn the kids by holding a expression at the stuffs given in the web site.
ICT in Education in Mauritius
All Mauritanian primary and secondary schools have computing machines. Primary schools are now offering ICT as a new topic and they are equipped with computing machine research lab and particular instructors are available to learn ICT to the primary kids. For now, ICT is non a compulsory topic but in the close hereafter, the authorities may make up one’s mind to set it as a nucleus topic as Mauritius aims is to go a cyber island.
About all the secondary schools, whether private or governmental schools have computing machine research labs. When a pupil starts his secondary instruction, it is mandatory for him/her to make a topic named Computer Studies till he/she ranges organize 3. Then the pupil can choose to make it for the SC and HSC scrutiny. Computer Studies may go a compulsory topic at signifier IV subsequently as presents computing machine are going more and more of import.
Universities in Mauritius are all equipped with one or more computing machine research labs. They have LANs ( Local Area Network ) and high velocity cyberspace which is free to the pupils. The universities have web sites where prospective pupils can make full out admittance applications and bing pupils can obtain scholarship inside informations, scrutiny consequences and other information [ 14 ] .
Till now, no 1 has put frontward the thought of incorporating ICT in pre-primary instruction although a batch is being done at the primary degree. It should be introduced at the pre-primary degree for kids to acquire a better penetration of it at an early age.
Talking book is described as the transition of text content into sounds. Research has shown that it was often used by the blinds. The importance of engineering offers assorted benefits to the educational community which generates interaction and coaction among scholars. Talking book offers several benefits related to the development of immature kids. One among the benefits of speaking book is that it enhances the communicating accomplishments of immature kids [ 3 ] .
Talking book offers several benefits related to the development immature kids and educational aims as it:
?’ Develops affective and cognitive spheres
?’ Caters for immature students with different acquisition manners
?’ Brings invention in course of study
?’ Develop literacy accomplishments
?’ Improves communicating accomplishments [ 3 ] .
The cardinal motive of speaking book was fundamentally the involvement shown by immature kids in playing computing machine games and their degree of adulthood and understanding displayed by them while playing. Therefore, IT could be used as a utile educational tool for researching every bit good as acquisition. This tool can assist in heightening the cognitive development in immature kids [ 3 ] .
Prior to the creative activity of the speaking books, pre-primary schools with IT installations were identified from the four different zones. The probe was conducted in 22 pre-primary private schools [ 3 ] .
The research was divided in two parts,
the creative activity and testing of the speaking books in the pre-primary
primary schools and
the societal networking among the chief histrions involved in the instruction and larning procedure utilizing Moodle e-learning platform [ 3 ]
Educational web sites for pre-primary instruction
Internet is going an increasing critical tool in our modern society. The usage of cyberspace as tool for acquisition is good known as many people opt for distance acquisition and there are some e-learning tools provided to assist pupils to cognize their lessons better by giving them on-line exercisings to make and instantaneously acquiring the reply.
There are many web sites that can be used by immature scholars so as to assist them develop good and understand some facets of their acquisition accomplishments but most of the web sites were developed by outside developers for their several states. These are:
Kinderweb educational kids ‘s Games ( hypertext transfer protocol: //kinderwebgames.com )
This web site is a free web site and a really interesting 1. It provides many different exercisings or educational games that immature scholars can make with the aid of an grownup. The exercisings include letters game, colour game, add-on game, minus game, comparison game among others. Besides, instructors or parents can publish the subdivision on colouring and so give the kids to colourise it.
The Kinderweb web sites is non that attractive, they could hold usage colour for the background to pull more immature scholars. Besides the user needs to scroll a batch, they could hold classified the games in horizontal.
IXL ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ixl.com/math/grade/pre-k/ )
The IXL website provides a figure of exercisings for different types of scholars and divides the web page in subdivision consequently. The web site is non a free one, we must register in order to entree all its resources but it does allow us acquire an overview of it by supplying a free test. The pre-K accomplishments are meant for pre-primary instruction and it provides them with a batch of activities that are classified in assorted larning countries. The IXL track the mark when replying the inquiry and besides the inquiries addition in trouble as the immature scholar improves.
The chief job with this web site is that it is non free and kids will non be able to utilize it for long as the test finished. The web site could hold been free for kids and paid for instructors or parents who want to download and entree some other informations.
Internet4Classrooms ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.internet4classrooms.com/month2month.htm )
The internet4Classrooms website is a free web portal designed to help anyone who wants to happen high-quality, free cyberspace resources for schoolrooms. The website site is used by instructors, parents and pupils. It is divided in different subdivisions such as Kindergarten skills, 1st class accomplishments among others. In the Kindergarten subdivision actives on mathematics, linguistic communications and art are available.
The job with this web site is that excessively many information is compact in one whole page which can be really confounding for all types of users. Besides, before accessing any exercisings, we have to snap on a nexus which will convey us to another page and so snap on another nexus to eventually entree the exercising. There are excessively many stairss to be done before really accessed the exercisings.
To be able to do the web site more synergistic, first we should take all the unneeded information. Furthermore, when snaping on an exercising alternatively of giving a series of links, we could entree the exercising straight and so as making the exercising the degree additions every bit good as the trouble.
Starfall.com ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.starfall.com/ )
This web site is really interesting and attractive 1. It is a free web site which will enable anyone whether instructors, parents and immature scholars to utilize it without much trouble. It provides guidelines and course of studies for the instructors. Besides, the website consists of alive images and the font size is non that little which will assist the user to utilize it really good. It provides for activities for larning ABC and reading. This web page is really good but it could hold put some mathematical accomplishments for immature scholars and some form distinction ( whether circle, square, rectangle or trigon ) .
Julia ‘s Rainbow Corner ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.juliasrainbowcorner.com/ )
This web site is a free and available to kids, parents, instructors and grandparents. It is really attractive with different coloring material fluctuations. As a front page, it has a rainbow which immediately can capture a kid attending. The web site has a subdivision “ merriment and games ” which provides different games in different larning country like figure, linguistic communication among others. The games are provided with sounds and counsel for little kids to utilize it. It besides has a subdivision viz. “ Goodies 4 Kids ” which provide for a list of points for childs such as apparels, calendars, playthings among others. Peoples can purchase these points online. In all, this web site is good and synergistic which can assist kids a batch.
e-Learning for childs ( www.e-learningforkids.org )
This web site is a private non-profit establishment based in US and Netherlands. It provides free synergistic tools for childs in different larning countries viz. Maths, Languages, Arts, Science, Computer Skills, Environmental accomplishments, Health classs, life accomplishments and English linguistic communication. Most of the classs are available in English and some in Spanish, Gallic, Lusitanian and Thai [ 8 ] . Good combinations of colourss are used in the site to do it more attractive and easy for the childs to follow. Sunhaloo et al demonstrated how this web site can be adapted in the Mauritanian context for pre-primary instruction every bit good as primary instruction [ 13 ] .
This subdivision is about pre-primary instruction in other states like Nigeria, Hong Kong, United Kingdom, Australia and USA and besides how engineering have help in early childhood instruction and what are the chances of ICT in pre-primary instruction We have taken state from each of the five continents that we can hold a general position of pre-primary instruction around the universe.
Modern Societies show serious concern for instruction of their immature kids for many of import grounds but it should be noted that non all are agreed on the demand and effectivity of such early childhood programmes. Some early authors on this issue hold the position that immature kids are non mature plenty to larn complex accomplishments fosterage of kids ‘s emotional security are more critical than any signifier of educational programme [ 15 ] . Furthermore, some taking bookmans in early childhood instruction have doubted the wisdom in exposing immature kids really early to formal instruction [ 16 ] .
Early on Childhood Education
In the current National Policy on Education in Nigeria, early childhood instruction is labelled as pre-primary instruction. It is given to kids aged from three to five plus anterior to the entrance in the primary school. The Policy aims at supplying a smooth passage from the place to the school ; fixing the kid for primary school ; instilling in the kid the spirit of creativeness through assorted agencies like playing with playthings ; learning them Numberss, letters, colorss, forms and besides inculcate societal norms in the kids. Besides, appropriate steps are taken to do instructors qualified in pre-primary instruction [ 16 ] .
About all the pre-primary instruction in Nigeria is provided by the private owners. Although the National Policy on Education prescribes that the kid in the pre-primary establishment should be involved in active acquisition, the papers detailing guidelines on proviso and direction of pre-primary instruction in silent on the course of study contents of such an establishment ( Federal Ministry of Education, 1987 ) . In the absence of such guiding rule and transcripts of the course of study for pre-primary instruction, owners and instructors resort to curricular of their pick [ 16 ] .
Pre-primary instruction in this state has a long manner to travel ; it is still in the beginning stage. In order for the aims of pre-primary instruction to go on, the authorities at that place should demo more involvement in the instruction of immature kids by supplying appropriate financess and installations and by doing certain that the steps in the policy are implemented. Equally far as ICT is concerned, they have non yet considered including it in the pre-primary instruction.
Pre-primary Services in Hong Kong refers to proviso of instruction and attention to immature kids by kindergartens and kid attention Centres. Kindergartens, registered with the Education Bureau, supply services for kids from three to six old ages old. Early childhood instruction is non portion of the universal and compulsory instruction system in Hong Kong [ 17 ] .Child attention Centres, on the other manus, are registered with the Social Welfare Department and include baby’s rooms, providing for kids aged two to three, and creches, looking after babies from birth to two. The purpose of pre-primary instruction in Hong Kong is to supply kids with a relaxing and enjoyable acquisition environment to advance a balanced development of different facets necessary to a kid ‘s development such as the physical, rational, linguistic communication, societal, emotional and aesthetic facets [ 18 ] .
ICT has become an of import portion of the course of study in Hong Kong ‘s early childhood scenes. Over 70 % of the childhood scenes are equipped with computing machine either in the school scenes or in the computing machine Centre. Researchs have taken two kindergartens as samples to see how ICT in the constitution will better the acquisition procedure. One of the schools was the New Territories Kindergarten ; its schoolrooms were equipped with LCD projector, and a notebook computing machine. Teachers at that place prepared digital instruction and they were satisfied and happy to see the kids basking watching the big exposures on the projector. Equally parents besides were really happy ; some parents have chosen this school because of the ICT installations as they do non hold computing machines at place [ 19 ] .
Children in England, Wales, and Scotland may travel to, at the parents ‘ pick, different pre-compulsory schools until the age of five. In Ireland, pre-compulsory instruction is offered through age four. Variously, these schools are known as baby’s room schools or, in England and Wales, response categories, which are held in primary schools [ 20 ] .
The authorities in UK progressively has gotten involved in doing an attempt to better the measure and quality of pre-primary schools. Many pre-primary schools are run with no charge in England and Wales. Attendance is about cosmopolitan in England, with 94 % of all pupils go toing in 1995, harmonizing to authorities informations [ 20 ] . There are six countries of larning for the immature kids. They are Personal, Social and Emotional Development ; Communication, Language and Literacy ; Mathematical Development ; Knowledge and Understanding of the World ; Physical Development and eventually Creative development. When a immature kid left the baby’s room, he/she should be able to get the hang all the six countries of acquisition.
During current old ages, instructors in England and Wales have been encouraged to increase the sum of whole category interaction of immature kids through the usage of synergistic whiteboard. The purpose was to better basic accomplishments such as numeracy and literacy. Research has shown that the inclusion of synergistic whiteboard in categories have a positive impact on the kids. The size of synergistic whiteboard encourages group coaction and facilitates active acquisition as is non merely inactive response of information [ 21 ] .
It is expected that by the terminal of the foundation phase kids will be able to “ Find out about and place the utilizations of mundane engineering and usage of information and communicating engineering and programmable playthings to back up larning ” . The foundation phase begins at the age of three and coatings with the response twelvemonth [ 20 ] .
Pre-school in Australia is non mandatory, but authorities purposes to promote it. There are different provinces in Australia and they are New South Wales, Victoria and Queensland. These three provinces are more aligned to pattern 2 which means that most pre-schools in these provinces are non-government. The pre-schools are by and large funded by the Commonwealth ( through the Child Care Benefit and Child Care Tax Rebate ) and by parents ‘ fees, while the other provinces and districts ( Western Australia, South Australia, Tasmania, the Northern Territory, and Australian Capital Territory ) are more aligned with Model 1, which is the authorities theoretical account where the huge bulk of pre-schools are authorities owned and run. [ 22 ] .
The ends of pre-school instructors in Australia are to better the kid literacy and numeracy public presentation ; oversing kids ‘s development and larning with a position to urge their suitableness for a school environment ; easing cognitive, societal, mental and physical developmental results through engagement in formal / informal acquisition plans [ 22 ] . Equally far as ICT is concerned, research is being made on how to present it in the pre-schools environment.
In USA, early childhood instruction includes kindergarten instruction. There they have plans for different sorts of kids such as programme for normal kids, for handicapped kids, for kids at hazard of instruction failure, for kids from low income households. The plan for early childhood instruction in USA is about literacy. It helps the kids to a sense of individuality to the American civilization [ 23 ] . The president of America Mr Obama is dedicated to supply the support to the youngest kids who need to be prepared to win subsequently in school. The President supports a flawless and comprehensive set of services and support for kids, from birth through age 5. He is besides dedicated to assist all kids win – regardless of where they spend their twenty-four hours – he is pressing provinces to enforce high criterions across all publically funded early acquisition scenes, develop new plans to better chances and results, engage parents in their kid ‘s early acquisition and development, and better the early instruction work force [ 24 ] .
ICT in Pre-primary Education
Computers have pervaded every facet of our life: nomadic phones, ATMs, digital TVs, in autos, rinsing machines among others. In this modern society the usage of ICT ( Information and Communication Technologies ) is going more and more omnipresent. Their usage has been established in primary, secondary and third degrees for a figure of old ages and their advantages have been good documented in footings of undertaking direction, improved motive, and capable cognition among others.
At present, ICT is non widely used in early childhood instruction patterns. Since the function of engineering in early childhood instruction is really controversial, parents and pedagogues are really concern about the benefits or injury that it can hold on the immature kids. Critics province that the usage of engineering in schools wastes clip, money and childhood itself by rushing up the procedure and cutting down on indispensable acquisition experiences [ 25 ] while advocates propose that kids should hold the possibility to do usage of those new engineerings [ 26 ] .
Computers are already in places and schoolrooms and immature kids are utilizing them [ 26 ] . So, the most of import factor is how to equilibrate engineering in larning. The usage of engineering should non replace the traditional manner of larning but alternatively it should supplement the conventional acquisition schemes by doing it go more interesting.
ICT in Pre-Primary Curriculum
The usage of ICT in the course of study is based on the demands of the kids, the focal point of the course of study, and whether ICT will add to kids ‘s educational chances and experiences.
The age of the kid and his developmental phase must be taken into history when sing computing machine usage. Children ‘s activities and experiences with computing machines will germinate over clip as they grow and develop. Very immature kids use computing machines with aid from an grownup or other kid. So the instructor ‘s function moves from counsel towards monitoring and active facilitation [ 26 ] . For this age the value of computing machine is in its open-ended usage, non in making a merchandise [ 28 ] .
Surveies by researches on engineering in pre-primary instruction
Many research workers have made different surveies in early childhood instruction. Some have even used different sorts of engineerings to back up their surveies. A group of research workers had analysed the benefits that tabletop engineerings can hold on immature kids. They have observed that kids had accepted the engineering without much hard and they were holding merriment in utilizing it [ 29 ] . Besides, the kids were able to pull strings objects on the tabletop and respond to it rapidly.
Deidre Crook had made surveies on ICT in UK. He has seen that immature kids are able to utilize pigment plans and that they were demoing to their equals how to utilize it. Furthermore, he had identified how ICT can be used for the development of linguistic communication and literacy by utilizing plans which develop reading and composing accomplishments [ 30 ] .
Impact of ICT on Pre-primary instruction
Child from birth to age of eight learn through drama and geographic expedition. Recent surveies have shown that engineering in the schoolroom improves larning in figure of ways. They are:
Computers motivate immature kids and contribute to cognitive and societal development.
Computer enhances kids self-concept and their attitudes towards acquisition.
Children show increased degrees of spoken communicating and cooperation during computing machine usage. Besides computing machine drama encourages more complex address and the development of eloquence
Children interact more often with their equals by prosecuting in bend taking that is a kid will utilize computing machine in his/her bend.
Children tend to narrate what they are making as they draw images or travel objects and characters around the screen [ 27 ] .
Young kids are active scholars, for computing machine or engineering to hold a positive impact on them ; they should utilize it for a upper limit of 15 proceedingss as kids get bored easy and like to make new activities [ 26 ] .
Every state has its ain manner to learn immature scholars but most of them agree that engineering can be used to heighten the traditional manner of larning. Technology is a tool that can supply alternate manner for kids to larn and do sense of their universe but it should ne’er replace the usage of concrete stuffs and manipulative. Children must be allowed to utilize book, draw on paper utilizing pencils and crayons together will all the traditional experiences that a kindergarten provides.
Over the past few old ages many surveies have signified that there are existent and quantifiable benefits in utilizing it with immature kids [ 19 ] , [ 21 ] , [ 25 ] , [ 26 ] , [ 27 ] , [ 29 ] , [ 30 ] . These benefits cover content in many course of study countries every bit good as personal development.