Recent manufacturer duty statute law such as the ELV and WEEE European. Directives are aimed at cut downing the measure of waste from such merchandises sent to landfill at the terminal of their life. Discourse the nature of these directives and what their deductions are for the design of affected merchandises and for their fabrication supply ironss.
As the development of engineering and natural resources grow, we are either straight or indirectly impacting our environment, we live in. Therefore doing the ‘mother Earth ‘ an uninhabitable topographic point for life. It is the error of the human race, which non merely endanger human existences, but besides endangers the life of other guiltless species on Earth. We continue to populate in a fast depleting and harmful topographic point.
Many states are concerned about the fast impairment of the environment and the natural resources. The consequence is non merely the above said countries, but besides on the economic and socio-political development of the each state. The effects of these are priceless and some of the statistics are given below. ( “ Towards Sustainability: the demand and the journey ” , Roger Saillant, 2004 )
Harmonizing to a UN survey, there are about 150 dead zones in ocean, around the universe. This covers the entire dead country of about 70,000 square stat mis. This is expected to increase in figure and finally in size as good. [ 1 ]
The Earth is losing its species diverseness at rate, which is 1000 to 10000 times more than the natural rate. [ 2 ]
The concentration of the atmospheric CO2 has increased by 18.9 % between 1959 and 2003. This green house gas denseness is 25 % higher than it was 4 lakh old ages ago. [ 3 ]
Sustainable Development: Definition
There are many definitions for sustainable development, the most popular definition is known as the Brundtland Report, which is given below. [ 4 ]
“ Sustainable development is development that meets the demands of the present without compromising the ability of future coevalss to run into their ain demands. It contains within it two cardinal constructs:
The construct of demands, in peculiar the indispensable demands of the universe ‘s hapless, to which overruling precedence should be given ; and
The thought of restrictions imposed by the province of engineering and societal organisation on the environment ‘s ability to run into present and future demands. ”
There is another definition, which defines the Sustainable Development construct as “ interdependent and reciprocally reenforcing pillars ” of sustainbale development as economic development, societal development and environmental protection. [ 5 ]
Harmonizing to Hasna Vancock, sustainability is a procedure which tells of a development of all facets of human life impacting nutriment. It means deciding the struggle between the assorted viing ends, and involves the coincident chase of economic prosperity, environmental quality and societal equity famously known as three dimensions ( ternary underside line ) with the end point vector being engineering, hence it is a continually germinating procedure ; the ‘journey ‘ ( the procedure of accomplishing sustainability ) is of class vitally of import, but merely as a agency of acquiring to the finish ( the desired future province ) . However, the ‘destination ‘ of sustainability is non a fixed topographic point in the normal sense that we understand finish. Alternatively, it is a set of desirous features of a hereafter system. [ 6 ]
About all the definitions emphasizes that the universe should be treated as a individual system and the actions which we do today will impact the future coevalss. It should be the duties of each and every manufacturer, maker, interior decorator, etc to move follow the construct of sustainable development.
The chief purpose of the sustainable development is to protect and command the resources around the universe. There are several constructs that aid accomplishing the sustainability. Those are either a tool or schemes or thoughts. Some of the sustainable development constructs are given below:
Strategic Impact Assessment
Environmental Management Systems
Environmental Impact Assessment
Government has taken several steps to better and make consciousness on the sustainable development. Particularly, authoritiess of European states have framed much statute law on sustainable development. The authorities or the legislative organic structure has formulated many environmental Torahs and ordinances attacks to turn to the sustainable development efficaciously. In the instance of release of pollutants into the environment, there are several emanation and environmental quality criterions implemented by the authorities. The chief of those criterions are to understate the harmful effects of these pollutants to both the worlds and the environment.
There are many attacks through which the authorities is moving in this respect. One of which is the bid and control attack. [ 7 ]
Command and control
Substance – wise attack – assorted criterions are set for each substance to understate its impact on the environment. For illustration, printed circuit boards have its ain ordinances to understate its impact on the environment.
Sector – wise attack – Governments set environmental ordinances for those industries, which are considered as high pollution doing industries.
Pollution control – provides ordinances on air, H2O and dirt pollution and commanding the pollutants and understating the impact on the environment.
Producer ‘s duty – this attack aims to understate the sum of waste stoping up in the landfill, by doing the maker or manufacturer to take the duty of their merchandises when they come to their terminal of useable life period. Some of the major directives in this attack are the End-of-life Vehicle directives ( ELV ) and Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment ( WEEE ) directives.
UK produces adequate waste to make full Lake Windermere in one twelvemonth. One ton of paper from recycled mush saves 17 trees, 3 three-dimensional meter of landfill infinite, 4200 kWh, 7000 gallons of H2O and 390 gallons of oil. [ 7 ] Landfill is the infinite or country, chiefly for the intent of disposal of waste.
The wastes are classified in several classs. They are shown in the below tabular array 1.4.1
Agricultural Wastes, Inert wastes, Mining and quarrying wastes
Municipal Solid Wastes
Family and commercial/industrial wastes
All human and carnal tissues, blood, surgical dressings, panpipes, surgery implements, microbiological civilizations, etc.
Hazardous and Special Wastes
Explosives or harmful substances
Table 1.4.1 Categorization of Wastes
EU authorities has passed statute law on the Landfill ( EU landfill directing 2002 ) . [ 7 ] Harmonizing to this directive, the landfills will be classified into three major classs. They are given below:
Landfill for risky wastes
Landfill for non-hazardous wastes and
Landfill for inert waste.
The biologically degradable wastes will be separated off from the landfills. Some of the risky wastes will be prohibited from stoping up in the landfills. Liquid wastes will besides be prohibited from come ining into the landfills. This is because of the potency of any liquid to flux around the landfill countries. This liquid flow may do some possible jobs. Other types of wastes that are prohibited from stoping up in the landfill zones are explosives, extremely flammable wastes, caustic wastes [ 8 ] . Infectious wastes that produced as consequence of the medical processs. This includes both human and veterinary medical processs. The Surs in whole signifier or in chopped signifier are banned from the landfill countries. Other wastes which do non come under any of the defined class are banned from come ining the landfill every bit good.
All the wastes that enter the landfill should be pre-treated. This will be an of import and mandatory action before those wastes are brought to the landfills. Apart from the ordinances, mentioned above, the landfill directive will take to cut down the figure of risky waste sites.
The above mentioned directives in concurrence with the End of life vehicles ( ELV ) and Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment ( WEEE ) , imposes tonss of force per unit area on the manufacturers ( or the makers ) and do them responsible for the disposal of their merchandises, when their merchandises becomes unserviceable.
Further in this study, the nature and the deductions of the Producer duty statute laws End-of-Life Vehicles ( ELV ) and the Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment ( WEEE ) are discussed.
Producer Responsible Directives
End of Life Vehicles ( ELV ) Directive
In Europe, there are about 9 million vehicles run intoing their terminal of life each twelvemonth [ 9 ] . About 75 % of the vehicles can be recycled and reused, accordingly 25 % of them end up in landfills [ 9 ] . To turn to the above mentioned issues, the European authorities passed the End of Life Vehicle Directive on September 18, 2000. [ 10 ] The authorities aims to cut down the per centum of vehicle wastes stoping up in the landfills, by conveying up the ordinances for the makers.
Nature of the ELV Directive
Harmonizing to this End of Life Vehicles Directive, it is the manufacturer ‘s duty to take back the vehicle that is non in a useable status and reuse or recycle, to the possible extent. This is merely for those vehicles, which are produced after the twelvemonth 2007. [ 7 ] The vehicle makers or the vehicle importers are considered as the manufacturers. Government pressurised the car makers to increase the per centum of recycling of vehicle and accomplish higher recovery rates.
Manufacturers or the makers need to pay whole or a portion of the sum of the cost that is needed to take back and dispose the vehicles. Manufacturers, dismantlers and shredders should hold proper installation and systems for the aggregation, recycling or recycling the ELVs from the client.
The terminal of life vehicles directive has set a recovery mark for all the ELVs, which are given below: [ 7 ]
85 % of by January 2006 ( minimal recycling )
95 % by January 2015 ( minimal 85 % recycling )
The stuffs flow in End of Life Vehicle directive is shown in the figure 2.1.1. [ 9 ] Form each terminal of life vehicle, the pollutants are removed foremost and so allowed for the dismantlement procedure. The parts of the vehicle can be sent back to the makers for reuse. Once the parts are removed the organic structure is shredded. Here is this procedure, the 75 % of the metals are obtained and sent to the steel Millss or runing mills, where it is melted and sent back to the makers as natural materials.. the staying stuffs form the shredder are farther processed ( if necessary ) to do it inert and sent to the landfill.
Figure 2.1.1: Materials Flow in ELV Directive [ 9 ]
In Germany, there were few basic proficient demands that were laid down by the German authorities for the proper disposal of ELVs. These are given below: [ 9 ]
Measures for deconstruction and drainage
Removal of specific parts
Inclusion of liquids taken and parts removed in reuse or recycling
The inclusion of 15 % of entire weight of an ELV in reutilisation.
Harmonizing to the Department for Transport ( DfT ) , the figure of terminal of life vehicles abandoned during the twelvemonth 2000 was more than 200,000 [ 9 ] . This figure rose drastically in the following two old ages. This was chiefly due to the so low monetary value of the metal and high scrapping cost. After the execution of the ELV directive, this figure started diminishing, since so. However, because of the high bit metal monetary value, the web for aggregation introduced the free return back. The figure of terminal of life vehicles abandoned in 2006 was about 65,000. [ 9 ] This is lesser when compared to that of in the twelvemonth 2000.
The terminal of life vehicles directive, brought in the twelvemonth 2005, introduced the guidelines to accomplish the manufacturer ‘s duty. Harmonizing to this, the manufacturers need to subscribe a contract with an Authorized Treatment Facilities ( ATF ) , recycling and recycling industries. And this web of industries demands to be approved by the Department of Trade and Industry ( DTI ) . [ 11 ]
Deductions of the ELV Directive
After the execution of the ELV directive, there was a drastic decrease in the figure of derelict vehicles each twelvemonth. The figure of recycled stuffs has besides increased in the subsequent old ages. This ELV directive is driven by assorted factors such as economic, technological, societal and most significantly the environmental factors. The position of the car makers has changed towards developing sustainable merchandises and recycling, recycling or remanufacturing of their ELVs. The car makers consider the recycling options for their terminal of life vehicles among the stuffs used to fabricate their vehicles and recycle the constituents that were used during the assembly of the vehicle. The material composing used in a vehicle has been altering towards more sustainable stuffs that can be recycled and reused easy. Chiefly the usage aluminum and other polymeric constituents were increased.
Since the execution of the ELV directive 2003, the legislative organic structure have issued around 1,400 licences to the Authorised Treatment Facilities ( ATF ) [ 11 ] . The recycling or terminal of life vehicle handling installation should merely be carried out by the authorized traders. There were besides many cases during this period, where many treating installations were runing illicitly, without the authorities blessing. These illegal operators include vehicle parts dismantlers, bit paces, secondary metal merchandisers for ELVs, etc. there is an estimated figure of around 2,500 illegal operators in the twelvemonth 2003 [ 11 ] . All these operators were either fined or banned.
There are assorted parts that can be recovered, recycled ad reused from the ELVs. This includes metals, non-metals, Surs, oils or fluids, plastics, polymers, froths, etc. In UK the entire per centum of parts recovered from the ELVs, in the twelvemonth 2004 is given in the below tabular array 2.1.2
Recovered/recycled/reused Partss of ELV
Table 2.1.2 Percentage of Partss recovered from ELVs, in 2004 ( Beginning: DTI, 2007 )
The position of the automotive industry has changed a batch and it has oriented towards developing sustainable designs. This directive has made the automotive industry to turn to the job right from the design stage of the fabrication procedure. As a consequence of this the undermentioned alterations have been observed in the automotive design: [ 12 ]
There is a considerable sum of alteration in the material composing designed/produced in the new autos.
There was an addition in use of the environmentally friendly stuffs that can be easy recycled.
There was a definite addition in usage of recycled stuffs.
Harmful stuffs or banned stuffs were removed from the design.
There was an addition in design for disassembly, reuse and remanufacture.
Commissariats for the below information, were besides implemented:
Part cryptography criterions
Knowledge on assorted procedures such as disassembly, disposal and recovery of vehicle parts.
Advantages of ELV Directive
There are assorted advantages to the environment, economic system and socio-political wise, because of the execution of the ELV directive. Some of them are given below:
Number of automotive wastes stoping up in the landfill has reduced.
Harmful stuffs use in the automotive design was banned or reduced.
Obtaining the natural stuff from the ELVs is easy compared to obtaining the natural stuff from its ores. Example: separation of aluminum from the ELV is more energy efficient than bring forthing the aluminum from its natural ores. [ 13 ]
There was a considerable sum of invention in the recycling, recycling and remanufacturing procedures.
This sort of directives can be applied for other industries as good.
The overall design of the cars have evolved and traveling towards sustainable design.
Disadvantages of the ELV Directive
There are rather a few disadvantages identified for this directive. Some of them are, the automotive makers are forced to bear, either whole or large portion of the cost of disposal of the terminal of life vehicles. The vehicles produced before the directive was passed, were exempted from this prohibition. This might do jobs to the replacing parts of those vehicles, since some of the parts might be banned or no longer available. The current recycling ordinances are wholly weight based. 1 kg of one stuff does non hold the same impact, on environment, as 1 kg of another stuff. Hence, the ordinance can be farther revised and dealt consequently with the criticalness of each stuff.
Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipments ( WEEE ) Directive
Nature of the WEEE Directive
As the invention and rapid development in engineering additions, there are many electrical and electronic merchandises enter the societal life of a individual. Most of these merchandises have a really small useable life span. This is due to the hapless quality or the coming of new and advanced merchandises in the market. This causes an addition in the Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipments. The electrical and electronic merchandises are one of the fast growth sectors in today ‘s universe. In Europe, a recent appraisal found that yearly there is waste of 6.5 million metric tons of WEEE stoping up in landfills. It is besides estimated that this figure will lift to 12 million metric tons by the terminal of 2015 [ 14 ] . This is about 14kg per individual per twelvemonth. [ 15 ]
The ordinances on the WEEE merchandises are aimed to cut down the figure of waste electrical and electronic equipments stoping up in the landfills at their terminal of life and promoting the recycling, recycling and remanufacturing of such merchandises. It besides provides specific demands for the intervention of these merchandises. It is one of the Producer Responsible directives, where the makers have to bear the whole or large portion in the disposal of the WEEEs.
This WEEE directing sets steps for the undermentioned processs of all the WEEEs at their terminal of life:
The cost for the above procedures has to be beared by the makers or the manufacturers. It besides ensures that these merchandises are recycled or reused in an environmentally safe manner.
The WEEE directive ensures the decrease of wellness hazards and the environmental jeopardies from the harmful substances used in the EEEs, by recycling or replacing those equipments with safe stuffs or relatively safer stuffs.
The different types of stuffs normally seen in the WEEEs are represented diagrammatically in the figure 2.2.1 below.
Figure 2.2.1: Typical stuff fractions in WEEE. Adapted from Widmer et Al. ( 2005 ) .
Some of the merchandises or equipments that are covered under this directive are given below:
IT & A ; Telecommunication equipments
Consumer EE equipments
Electric and electronic tools
Electric and electronic playthings
Large and little family equipments
Deductions of the WEEE Directive
The WEEE directive has lead to many alterations in the electrical and electronic equipment fabrication industries. The nucleus design of each and every EEEs are designed to run into the sustainable criterions. After all, the manufacturers are the 1s who are traveling to pay for its disposal, recycling or reusing of those merchandises produced. It besides brought alterations in the recycling procedure of electrical and electronic garbages. These statute laws have influenced the development of the invention of the intervention systems for the WEE Equipments.
There have been particular locations where the WEEEs are collected. These are Designated Collection Facility ( DCF ) sites. These sites are operated by the renovation industry, or the reuse industry, or the retail merchants, or the shopping centres or the manufacturers. The waste EEEs are collected harmonizing to the set of guidelines preset by the statute law.
The major deductions of the waste electrical and electronics equipment statute law are given below:
The merchandises are designed to run into the sustainability criterions.
The figure of EEE wastes stoping up in the landfill has been reduced.
Tonss of recycling methods have been developed particularly for the electrical and electronic equipments.
Merchandises are designed with the life of the merchandises taken into consideration.
The methods to take back the WEEEs are pre-determined before it comes to the market.
The effectual reuse, recycle of the stuffs or constituents used in the WEEE is predetermined.
The EEE fabrication concerns have to bring forth information to the authorities on the figure of EEEs sold and figure collected. To the dismantlers, the company has to supply information on the methods to level the EEEs and notify if there is any risky stuff used in the EEE. To the users, the company has to supply information on the service period of the EEEs and what to make with the WEEEs, one time it reaches its terminal of life. It is besides of import that the manufacturers, should inform the users on non to throw the WEEEs on the waste bin, alternatively it has to given to the proper Designated Collection Facility ( DCF ) .
Advantages of WEEE Directive
The major advantages of WEEE directive are given below:
The sum of WEEEs stoping up in the landfill has been reduced.
The environmental jeopardies because of the WEEEs are reduced.
There were new engineerings emerging in the country of recycling, recycling the stuffs in the WEEE.
New techniques to plan electrical and electronic equipments that are both ecologically and economically feasible.
It improves good waste direction accomplishments.
Peoples tend to larn, acknowledge and salvage the repairable stuffs in the WEEEs.
Disadvantages of WEEE Directive
Though there are immense advantages for the WEEE directive, there are some disadvantages identified for this directive. From the transit position, the transporting the WEEE might do environmental jeopardies like pollution, noise, traffic jams or even big sum of energy consumed [ 14 ] . A consequence shows that the recycling processes screening and leveling procedure of a WEEE is of least involvement of the companies [ 16 ] .
The ELV directive has been successfully implemented across many states. It has decidedly reduced the figure of ELVs come ining the landfills and encouraged the recycling and recycling the vehicle parts and the stuffs. The directive besides removed the confusion of the inquiry of duty of the wastes. It has identified that the people who left the merchandise in the market are the 1s who should be responsible for its disposal or recycle every bit good. The statute law has set clear marks for the hereafter and is traveling positively towards its end. Some of the major marks have been cut downing the figure of derelict vehicles, figure of ELVs stoping up in landfills, etc. As expected by the statute law, this has been achieved and the Numberss are diminishing. The WEEE directive purposes to cut down the sum of WEEEs stoping up in the landfills. Therefore, forestalling the risky and harmful stuffs from fouling the environment. It encourages sustainable attack to plan and fabrication.
To reason, both the manufacturer responsible directives ( ELV and WEEE directives ) , if followed unfeignedly, proves to be economical and environmental friendly. The recycling of the stuffs will salvage the fast consuming new stuffs available on Earth. This will evidently increases the economic and societal sustainability. ELV and WEEE purposes to cut down the negative impacts caused by the terminal of life vehicles and the waste electrical and electronic equipments, severally, to the environment. The cost of the reused or recycled in market demands to be competitory with the virgin stuffs [ 7 ] . If the ELV Directive is decently followed, it could ensue in good net incomes. The execution of both the directives proved to be clearly advantageous.