The workplace has a important impact on people ‘s wellness and safety and hapless direction of workplace safety and wellness can take to work related ill-health, hurts and to extreme instances decease. With the coming of the freshly proclaimed OSHA 2005, the Government of Mauritius stated that with the enlargement of the economic system, the occupational wellness system is undergoing a major displacement from protection of wellness at work to the publicity of wellness of the work force.
In recent old ages, occupational wellness and safety statute law has taken monolithic paces, obliging administrations to develop policies that safeguard employees ‘ safety and wellness at work. The execution of statute law and policy nevertheless remains a cardinal challenge for many authoritiess and administrations, as does the issue of monitoring and reappraisal of policies, patterns and processs.
Since Occupational Safety and wellness is acquiring a lifting importance in Mauritius, our survey will establish on a hazard appraisal done at Mare-Chicose landfill station.It has been opted in an effort to do appropriate suggestions or farther executions of Safety and Health in the landfill station.
Solid waste direction is an issue which needs attending non merely by the authorities but besides of its direction as Mare-Chicose is the lone landfill in Mauritius. Our assignment has focused on how Solid waste direction is regulated and the safety and wellness facet of workers has besides been highlighted.
The methodological analysis used for this survey is based on extended literature hunt on books, publications and the cyberspace. A preliminary checklist was prepared and a site visit was so initiated from which a hazard appraisal was so performed.
Finally, the survey leads to a set of proposed recommendations that will give a better direction of the landfill station.
Waste direction is the aggregation, conveyance, processing, recycling or disposal, and monitoring of waste stuffs. The term normally relates to stuffs produced by human activity, and is by and large undertaken to cut down their consequence on wellness, the environment or aesthetics.
Solid waste direction is a polite term for refuse direction. Equally long as worlds have been populating in settled communities, solid waste, or refuse, has been an issue, and modern societies generate far more solid waste than early worlds of all time did. Daily life in industrialised states can bring forth several lbs of solid waste per consumer, non merely straight in the place, but indirectly in mills that industry goods purchased by consumers. Solid waste direction is a system for managing all of this refuse ; municipal waste aggregation is solid waste direction, as are recycling plans, mopess, and incinerators.
The addition in the economic development has changed the life manner and the ingestion form of the population. Consequently, this has led to an addition of the sum of solid waste generated.
The Mare-Chicose landfill has been created in the 1990s, which is the lone landfill in Mauritius which receives domestic solid waste. The urbanisation and rapid industrialisation during the past decennary has led to altering production and ingestion forms that continue to show new demands for natural resources and make new waste watercourses. It is estimated that solid waste produced in Mauritius is about 380,000 metric tons a twelvemonth and is expected to make 418,000 metric tons in 2014 The direction late identified that the landfill needs an extension of about 5 hectares to get by with the future demand.
Who control Solid waste direction in Mauritius?
The Ministry of Local Government and the Rodrigues Regional Assembly are responsible for solid waste direction. Solid waste aggregation is undertaken by the local governments in countries under their legal power and disposed of at the Mare Chicose landfill via a web of transportation Stationss situated at St Martin, Roche Bois, Poudre d’Or and La Brasserie
The transportation Stationss carry out compression of waste prior to their transit to the landfill site. The Mare Chicose landfill, which was originally planned to have 400 metric tons of waste day-to-day, is now having about 1000 metric tons
The life span of the disposal site at Mare Chicose has dramatically been reduced from 19 old ages to 8 old ages.
Government disbursement sums to about Rs 500 million per annum for the aggregation, transit and disposal of garbage waste. This sum includes the aggregation costs of over Rs 300 million per twelvemonth and about Rs 155 million is incurred annually for the operation of transportation Stationss ( Rs 75 m ) and disposal site at Mare Chicose ( Rs 80 m ) , which are operated by private contractors. In malice of heavy investing, the present disposal system is unequal.
Government ‘s policy is to advance waste decrease, understate its coevals, promote the acceptance of environmentally sound methods of resource recovery and modernize the institutional and legal model for the full logistical concatenation – aggregation, storage, transportation and disposal – and present a cost recovery mechanism.
Solid waste direction
Robinson ( 1986 ) defines solid waste direction as the application of techniques that will guarantee the orderly executing of the maps of aggregation, conveyance, processing, intervention and disposal of solid waste. The of all time increasing planetary concern on environmental wellness demands that wastes be decently managed and disposed of in the most friendly and acceptable manner. This is to minimise, and where possible, extinguish its possible injury to worlds, workss, animate beings and natural resources.
With the coming of new engineerings there are different types of solid waste recovery and disposal techniques that exist worldwide. The different types of solid waste intervention are illustrated in the diagram below:
Figure1- ( Adapted from- hypertext transfer protocol: //viso.ei.jrc.it/iwmlca/aboutiwm.html )
In Mauritius, the lone disposal method we use is the landfill and this makes our exclusive landfill Mare-Chicose ever under operation. Unfortunately the safety and wellness facet related to the landfill is neglected and the jeopardies nowadays in the landfill is rather neglected. To measure the safety and wellness facet related to the landfill, our group has use the checklist method to roll up informations and do the hazard appraisal.
Hazards nowadays in a landfill station
Biological jeopardies refer to biological substances that cause a menace to the wellness of life beings, chiefly that of worlds. This can include medical waste or samples of a micro-organism, virus or toxin ( from a biological beginning ) that can impact human wellness
A chemical jeopardy arises from taint of an country with harmful or potentially harmful chemicals. Possible beginnings of chemical jeopardies include the combustion of dodos, stuffs, pollution of the environment and H2O supply, chemical spillages, industrial accidents, and the deliberate release of toxic stuffs. ( adapted from Wikipedia )
Physical jeopardies are the most common and will be present in most workplaces at one clip or another. They include insecure conditions that can do hurt, unwellness and decease
Approximately all the Municipal Solid Wastes are dispose at the landfill which increases the hazard of possible jeopardies involved in the pattern of waste disposal. The disposal of wastes in landfills nowadayss several jeopardies including fires jeopardies, diseases from being, violative olfactory properties, and methane escape, leaching of toxic and caustic stuffs into surface and belowground Waterss or accident with the vehicle usage at landfills.
Michael F. Waxman ( 1996, p.126 ) remark that jeopardies can be group as three type viz. physical chemical and biological. Chemical jeopardies at landfill consist of flammable liquid and vapour, toxic gases and carcinogen. Physical jeopardies consist of noise, electricity, temperature, heat, faux pas and trip whereas biological jeopardies consist of infective medical waste and research stuffs. This gives an thought of the big figure of jeopardies present at the landfills which can do a high hazard of accidents and diseases.
Sing to jeopardies at landfills, it appears that people respond to the wellness jeopardies with feelings of fright and rejection. Daniel R. Faber and Eric J. Krieg ( 2002 ) examined the wellness jeopardy nowadays at landfills the likes of chemical waste which include quicksilver, dioxin, polychlorinated biphenyls, arsenic, lead, and heavy metals such as Cr, have been dumped at the landfill as no proper confirmation is done.
Furthermore the site is exposing to taint of the land H2O and can potentially do malignant neoplastic disease, birth defects and liver malignant neoplastic disease. But research was made to quantify the badness of waste at different subdivision in waste disposal programme and the badness was quantify from 1 to 25, demoing a evaluation of to the municipal solid waste demoing being the less risky site than others that is 5 compared to incinerators which is 20.
Landfill jeopardies associate with worker.
As research was made before the landfill is link with different type of jeopardies like biological, chemical and physical. These jeopardies are more expose to worker than inhabitant nearby landfill as they are the 1 who are working with risky stuffs.
Harmonizing to Dino Drudi ( 1999 ) he made a study and cod informations of the human death rate nowadays at landfill compared to other responsibilities of worker associated with landfill. He found that between 1992-97, about three quarters of the 223 garbage systems workers enduring fatal occupation hurts were either refuse aggregators ( 69 human deaths ) , truck drivers ( 63 human deaths ) , or non-construction labourers ( 30 human deaths ) .Moreover he in the stated that worker at landfill are more expose to jeopardies like struck by vehicle, nomadic equipment, transit of waste, clangs and other incidents, Caught in or compressed by equipment or objects and other type of jeopardies. Furthermore he found out landfill waste is more risky to worker among all type of waste aggregation methods.
Harmonizing to Joseph A. cimino ( 1975 ) landfill jeopardies to worker are greater and worker are expose to jeopardies like back hurting, hurts from nails and glass lesions and bacteriums and other type of biological, physical and chemical jeopardies. Harmonizing New York City Department of Sanitation ( 1968-1969 ) information was collected to quantify the Probability of hurt happening in per centum and harmonizing to the informations different work involve higher hazard of hurt to accident Raising 16 % , walking with load 10 % , Dumping 17 % , Steping off kerb 3 % , Leaving vehicle 6 % , Entering vehicle 2 % , walking in work country 8 % , Stealing 10 % and other 28 % .According to the information higher hazard of hurt at landfill is when dumping of waste and lifting of equipment which can do hurts like back hurting, etc.
The occupational safety and wellness facets at the landfill station Mare-Chicose
Health and safety of worker
In Mauritius, typically for a manually loading truck, a crew of 4 or 5 individuals is common. In many instances, the driver and assistants alternate functions. The drivers who dump the waste at the landfill sites are at hazard due to risky roads ensuing in upset vehicles.
The employer shall guarantee that all the machines at the landfill are safe to utilize and they have the right precautions. Furthermore the machine should be used by merely authorised individuals. The operators should be trained to utilize those machines and should be given adequate information and direction so as to execute the undertaking safely. The workers should describe to their supervisors in instance of faulty controls and guards. It should be noted that you should non clean a machine while it is in gesture as this can be unsafe for the individual.
Slips and trips
The big figure of hurts caused by faux pass and trips are non ineluctable. The solutions are normally inexpensive, simple but can ensue to better ; easier working conditions and besides the work effectivity is improved.
The undermentioned steps can be taken to cut down the hazard of faux pass and trips at the landfill:
Employer should guarantee that spillage of moisture and dry substances and points are prevented. However, if spillages of points are ineluctable, cleaners should guarantee that spillages are clear off instantly and if where floors may stay moisture for some clip should guarantee that the prosaic are warned and sidetracked by utilizing appropriate barriers and marks.
The usage of unsmooth land should be eliminated where this can be moderately achieved.
The lighting system should be suited and decently maintained such as the bulb should be kept clean and end-of -life bulbs should be replaced ; besides if needed the lighting degrees should improved.
The drainage should be improved so as to take standing H2O.
Health of workers
The worker should protest their tegument by working safely and have oning the protective baseball mitts and vesture. The worker should avoid contact with chemicals as toxic chemical may be combined with the waste like aggressive cleansing fluids or oils. These can do annoyance to the tegument and can do dermatitis. The workers should rinse their custodies on a regular basis with soap under running H2O such as before feeding, imbibing or smoke. This will cut down the hazard of ‘bugs ‘ or chemicals into their custodies to acquire into their oral cavity. Furthermore worker should maintain away their manus from the olfactory organ, eyes and oral cavity for their ain safety
Furthermore, the wellness and safety officer should guarantee that all workers are vaccinated on a regular basis. These inoculations would include lockjaw and infantile paralysis. However depending upon the nature of work carried out by the worker ; he may be needed to be vaccinated for other likely unwellnesss
Landfill workers who fall badly have to inform their physician about the types of occupation that they performed as it may assist the physician to make up one’s mind which intervention is suited for them.
The wellness of the workers should be on a regular basis monitored so as to place any jobs at an early phase. Medical scrutiny has to be carried out by occupational wellness physician or nurse or there may be simple questionnaire that are to be filled by the workers.
Social welfare installations
Welfare installations of workers and visitants should be good maintained so as to cut down the hazard of unwellnesss. These include that the lavatory should be clean and good ventilated and it should be separate for work forces and adult females. There should be proviso of wash basin of equal size ; with both cold and hot running H2O. Besides consumable stuffs such as soap, towels, toilet paper should be available and kept stocked.
Furthermore workers and visitants should be provided with barrier pick and skin-conditioning pick where necessary. If the workers perform out-of-door work ; drying installations for their wet apparels should be available. Rest installations and alteration installations for workers should be in topographic point. The employer should guarantee that the public assistance installations are unbroken clean and good maintained. In order to accomplish this person will necessitate to be given the duties.
Personal protective equipment
PPE are said to be the last line of defence. Worker should protect their caput by have oning a helmet as this will protect the worker if there is a existent hazard of point falling on him. Besides they should protect their eyes by have oning protective spectacless to forestall atoms and heavy dust to come in their eyes. Noise can do lasting hearing loss ; therefore workers should have on ear stoppers or muffs. Face mask should be provided to workers so as to protect their lungs from heavy dust.
The Aims and aims Of the Analysis are:
To transport out an in depth analysis of the on the job conditions of the workers and the environment of the Mare-Chicose landfills with a peculiar focal point of their Health and safety
To place wellness and safety public presentation in Mare-Chicose.
To analyze the hazard degree of the jeopardies nowadays in the landfill.
To do recommendations for the betterment of the safety and wellness facet at Mare-Chicose landfills
To do suggestions for the publicities of Safety and Health direction civilization at the landfill.
Landfill is the most appropriate signifier for disposal of municipal solid waste direction. From houses to houses, many people on mean whether rich or hapless, bring forth about 1200T of solid waste per twenty-four hours. However, landfill comprises of many jeopardies. Peoples working at landfill station face a batch of wellness job. For the intent of this assignment, a study was carried out at Mare Chicose landfill Station to place all the possible jeopardies that exist at that place. Furthermore, ways to battle those jeopardies will be farther be elaborated.
The usage of a checklist was needed to place all the possible jeopardies that exist at Mare Chicose landfill Station. The jeopardies that are present at the landfill station were categorized under physical jeopardies, chemical jeopardies biological jeopardies and psycho-social jeopardies. The types of jeopardies associated in landfill were found in literatures and diaries. While reading diaries, books and literatures refering jeopardies at landfill station, the above mentioned jeopardies that existed in landfill station were perceived.
Procedure for Data aggregation
The process to roll up informations in order to analyse the extent of jeopardies present at Mare Chicose landfill Station was performed by a site visit with the pupil of BOSHM/08/FT. It is to be noted that earlier traveling to Mare Chicose, a preliminary checklist was prepared by pupils who were assigned for the landfill ‘s undertaking. The checklist was prepared harmonizing to published articles or diaries refering landfill station.
While executing site visit at Mare Chicose landfill station, with the aid of the preliminary checklist, most of the jeopardies were identified and were noted down. Some jeopardies which were non present in the checklist were farther added with the aid of an applied scientist working at the landfill, helped us by giving some information of jeopardies present at that place.
Consequences and treatment
This subdivision deals with the analysis, findings and treatments of the informations collected. The methodological analysis discussed in the old subdivision has helped us to make the hazard appraisal. The informations have been presented chiefly by the usage of the saloon charts and the hazard assessment sheet.
This Risk appraisal Matrix is based on the HSE research study 240 “ Mapping wellness and safety criterions in the UK waste industry ” . It has been used in concurrence with the Guide, which can be downloaded from the HSE web site. The study describes a survey on the nature of the UK waste industry and its wellness and safety criterions.
Hazard is determined by two factors:
How frequently might a peculiar jeopardy arise?
How much injury is likely to ensue?
To execute the hazard appraisal we have to travel through a figure of stairss. We have to rate the likeliness of a jeopardy occurring and its expected frequence ( % of happening ) . likeliness has been farther divided into
Unlikely- can presume it ne’er occur
Remote – may happen at some point of clip, seldom
Possible – the chance of happening exist
Likely- can happen several times
Frequent can happen frequently, continuously, experienced
1-No injury2-Minor hurt
Risk degree = Likelihood x Severity
Risk degree is so compared to the tabular array below
After comparing we use the tabular array below to place hazard: for illustration of the hazard degree of a jeopardy is 16 which autumn under the class the hazard is low.
Biological jeopardy appraisal
Calculated hazard degree
Pest and gnawers ( disease vectors )
Airbone bacteriums fungi
Table 1 – Consequence for biological jeopardies
Medical waste – From the above tabular array it can be seen that the deliberate hazard degree is 9. That is it is a medium hazard degree and a tolerable and acceptable degree. The sum of medical waste come ining the landfill should be controlled as it has a rather risk degree. Medical waste may ensue in tegument and oculus fungal and bacterial infections. Therefore control steps have to be put in topographic point to minimise the sum of medical waste in the landfill. Furthermore, appropriate PPEs should be given to the workers and supply decontamination.
Plagues and gnawers – From the tabular array it can be seen that the deliberate is 20. It has a high hazard degree ; therefore direction should guarantee that it is controlled. The symptoms of exposure to plagues and gnawers vary from mild annoyance to anaphylactic daze and decease. Furthermore, cervid ticks may do Lyme disease. Therefore Periodic reviews of the site should be performed to place bee urtications and wasp nests, and for the presence of serpents. Professional kill offing companies should be consulted for remotion. Tick and insect repellants may be used for exposure control. However, workers should look into their tegument and vesture for ticks sporadically throughout the work twenty-four hours.
Offensive Odour- The hazard degree is 15 which prevarication in the ruddy country ; it is a high hazard. Common sense dictates that smell is an unacceptable hazard. Odours themselves are non unsafe but they may bespeak presence of harmful odourless gases ( e.g. odorless methane ) . Unpleasant smells can do a assortment of wellness effects like sickness, purging, upsetting of slumber, reduced bosom rate and bottleneck at blood vass in tegument and musculuss. Therefore, significant betterments in hazard control steps are necessary so as to cut down to a tolerable degree. For case an equal gas aggregation method can be put in topographic point.
Calculated hazard degree
The presence of landfill gas.
The presence of dirt taint
Uneven land colony and hapless drainage
Calculated hazard degree
Waste chemical ( leachate )
Comparison of consequence
From the above diagram, we can observe the addition of degree of jeopardies present in the landfill radioactive jeopardies being the least happening and physical jeopardy being the most.
The information on solid waste workers and their related wellness effects are scarce in Mauritius. The information from surveies discussed below are frequently flawed due to little survey size, callback prejudice, deficiency of good control population, and thin statistics, as discussed. Another job is that the surveies have chiefly focused on acute hurt, non chronic disease. Due to the practical deficiency of long term surveies and deficiency of follow up, chronic disease and other related informations are about nonexistent.
During our site visit, we were given information how the cells was prepared but no information about the safety and wellness about the workers.
We could non make a 2nd clip visit to guarantee a recheck of our assignment due to miss of clip which on the reverse could assist us to happen a better analysis.
From our survey it can be said that the wellness and safety of workers and visitants at landfill are given that much importance. It has been seen that there are many jeopardies that are non decently controlled and it can caused injury to both workers and visitants.
Based on the work undertaken, the undermentioned recommendations are presented as agencies of bettering wellness and safety within the landfill: –
Harmonizing to Mr. Avinash, there is a wellness and safety officer employed on a parttime footing. Therefore it can be concluded that taking into consideration the sum of jeopardies present at the landfill ; a wellness and safety officer is non plenty to guarantee a safe topographic point of work at the landfill. Hence, it would be preferred to use a full-time wellness and safety officer so as to hold a proper wellness and safety direction in topographic point. This would certainly assist to the decrease of jeopardies and the figure of accidents happening at the landfill.
There should be an betterment in safety civilization among the workers particularly among the layperson at the landfill because there are those who are chiefly exposed to those hazards. This will include incident coverage that is supervisor should promote the workers to describe any incident at the landfill. There should be a proper elucidation of Responsibilities among the direction degree and counsel for little operators on the best ways to better safety.
Give proper wellness and safety preparation to the worker so as to advance a safety civilization at the landfill. This will promote the worker to have on the PPE where necessary as they will be cognizant of the importance of PPE after go toing the preparation session. Peoples need to understand why they have to have on PPE instead than merely be told to have on it. Training will besides raise consciousness of people ‘s restrictions in footings of what is safe and what they are qualified to execute.
At the landfill, enter and issue marks should be placed in such a manner that it will be seeable to the lorry drivers so as to forestall confusion. For illustration during our site visit, it was found that a lorry entered the landfill through the incorrect transition and this has caused a kind of traffic jam.
A proper wellness and safety direction should be put in topographic point by the top degree direction so as to supply a safe topographic point of work and cut down the hazard of accident at the landfill.
Refering the route through which the Lorries have to go through to make the top of the landfill, it was seen that it is non decently maintained and no velocity bound marks were seen. In order to forestall accident, the route should be decently maintained and a velocity bound mark 20 kilometers per hour should be placed along the route.
Taking into consideration all the old electronic devices that are usually a nuisance for more families and office as we have to happen a topographic point to maintain them. The landfill could hold built cells that would suit all these electronic devices as it can be harmful to the environment if they are placed in unfastened air.
To reason, we would wish to state that there is no uncertainty that with urbanisation and rapid industrialisation there is edge for waste coevals to increase. We should besides observe that the population of the state is besides increasing at a steep rate. Given the diverseness of stuff generated by the population coming on the header of waste, there is considerable possible for risky exposure to happen through the direction of waste. However this assignment does non by and large back up these concerns.
Measure need to be taken quickly as the Mare-Chicose landfill is being optimize. Other solutions demands to be farther implemented for illustration upgrading of bing transportation Stationss and building of a new one. It should be good planned and overhaul with the installations. Construction of a pilot green composting works and building of civic agreeableness Centres for bulky wastes are besides being planned.
The authorities focused that they are soon working toward doing the waste direction sector buttocks efficient as possible but since the Landfill stays a short and average term, the publicity of a waste turning away and recovery civilization demand to be given precedence. Persons, families, and establishments are to be sensitized on the demand to minimise waste at beginning, of the value or re-use and recycling and the possibilities for change overing waste to resources.
Last but non the least, safety and wellness direction is a field that should be taken into good consideration. The whole hierarchy of direction itself needs to be consistent and heighten the safety and wellness of workers and besides cater for the people populating in the propinquity.
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