The paper Teaching Adults is focused on the issue of grownup scholars. There are mentioned features of grownup scholars, particularly how do grownup scholars differ from immature scholars. The following portion of the paper is devoted to motive of grownup scholars ; you can happen there the definition of motive, specific motive factors and discernible indexs of motive. In add-on to that, the paper introduces the function of the instructor in the procedure of grownup pupils learning. There are discussed the instruction schemes suited for grownup pupils, e.g. talks and presentations, function – drama, simulation and games, undertaking work etc. The chief purpose of the paper is to explicate the differences in learning grownups and kids or striplings.
Adult pupils in the procedure of ELT construct the particular group of people socially accepted as mature and who are in a learning procedure. Teaching adults differs from learning kids in theoretical and practical parts. The field of big instruction was pioneered by Malcom Knowles who is one of the laminitiss of andragogy. Andragogy is focused on grownups while teaching method is concerned on kids. Unlike kids and immature people grownups have a batch of life experience, which is reflected in the schoolroom. Probably the individual most of import concern for the instructor of grownups is understanding of the diverseness of grownup larning rules. Adults are autonomous and expect to take duty for determinations. We have to bear in head that the instructions while learning grownups should be concerned on the procedure of what is needed to be learnt. It is of import to utilize schemes such as function playing, simulations, undertaking work and treatments rather frequently because they are most utile for big pupils who are job -centred, goal- oriented and practical. Teacher adopts a function of adviser instead than lector and helps determine the educational unit harmonizing to the current state of affairs.
Furthermore, another facet of grownup instruction is motive because merely when pupils are motivated they can larn. The best manner is to heighten studentsA? ground for larning. Teachers must be after their motivation scheme which includes demoing grownup pupils the relationship between developing an expected publicity.
Finally, we do non hold to bury another built-in portion of grownups larning which proper feedback is. We should cognize when and have to give feedback because good feedback is one of the basic wagess of acquisition.
Teaching English to grownups is different from learning kids and teens and involves a considerable sum of planning and accomplishment to do it apprehensible and adaptable to all scholars.
1. Features of Adult Learners
Adults are people who have the position of adulthood in their ain and other peopleA?s eyes, but in the instruction procedure they come in the low-level place of the scholars. It could be really hard at the beginning, and it depends on persons how to cover with this state of affairs. A batch of grownups can go dying from being at school and are afraid of their failure and may believe that they are unable to larn.
Harmonizing to Jenny Rogers, “ The struggle is that as grownups we already have certain well-developed thoughts about life along with our ain system of thoughts and beliefs. To acknowledge that we need to larn something new is to acknowledge that there is something incorrect with our present system. ”[ 1 ]
On the other manus, they have an outlook about the acquisition procedure and they are able to accept duty for the acquisition. They are self – directed ; they are non dependent on other people for way. Adults as scholars are goal-oriented and results-oriented. They normally know what end they want to accomplish, and they besides have specific consequences in head for instruction. They must see a ground why to larn something. Learning has to be valuable for them ; it should be related to their demands and eventually suit to their work. In other words, grownups seek instruction which is appropriate for their current lives. They are practical and are focused on the facets of the lessons ; it means they want to cognize how the lessons will be utile to them on the occupation. We must non bury that grownups have a batch of experience and a wealth of cognition, and they expect to be treated consequently. They require larning that makes sense and is connected to their cognition and experience. They can be besides critical of learning methods.
Furthermore, we can anticipate that grownups are more disciplined that some kids and adolescents and are able to prolong a degree of motive. Compared to kids, grownups have more developed abstract idea ; it means we have to take appropriate activities adapted to utilize their minds to larn consciously.
To sum it up, there are a batch of specific characteristics of grownup scholars which we have to bear in head in the procedure of learning. Compared to kids and adolescents, grownups have particular demands and demands as scholars. Of class, these are generalisations, and at that place can look some exclusions in each group of scholars.
2. Learner Differences
Each pupil is different in rational abilities, larning and believing. These differences are related to different thought manners and larning manners of pupils. We can separate brooding minds, originative minds, practical minds and conceptual minds. Brooding minds perceive new information subjectively, associate it to past experience and analyze their feelings about larning. On the contrary, originative minds examine the new information, really frequently ask “ why? ” and make their ain solutions. Practical minds need factual information and attempt to happen the simplest and besides efficient manner to make something. In other words, they want to use their new accomplishments to their occupation. The last group consists of conceptual minds who are interested in how things work, non merely in the concluding result. They like seeing images and want to cognize the related constructs.[ 2 ]
Equally of import are larning manners. Students normally tend to one acquisition manner because they associate it with larning success. There are three general larning manners: ocular, audile, and kinesthetic. Ocular scholars process new information when they can see it. They like artworks, illustrations, diagrams, images and presentations. Their slogan is “ Show me ” . Auditory scholars rely on sounds and voices ; they remember new information when it is spoken. They love talks and treatments. Their slogan is “ State me ” . Kinaesthetic scholars need to make something to understand it. They want to touch the new information or manipulate it. They prefer written assignments, taking notes and scrutiny of objects. Their slogan is “ Let me make it. ”
3. Motivation for Adult Learning
Motivation is everything what helps to wake up and maintain someoneA?s involvement to make something. Students come to education for many grounds. All grounds are acceptable because any motive is better than none. If scholars are non motivated, they are non able to larn. Most big pupils are at the schoolroom because they want to be. There are called “ want to ” scholars. Some of them are at that place because they need it for their occupation. They are “ have to ” scholars. We can separate intrinsic and extrinsic motive. Intrinsic motive is our internal demand to make something. Extrinsic motive represents all other external factors non straight connected to the issue being learnt.
There are a batch of motive factors. Some of the most common are:
Promotion- depends on go throughing an test or making a class.
Personal promotion – people want to acquire higher position at work.
Social relationships – people want to do new friends.
Escape/Stimulation – people want to avoid ennui ; larning can disrupt the day-to-day modus operandi at place or work.
External outlooks – people try to carry through the outlooks of person with formal authorization.
More money – after go throughing a class or successful graduation you can anticipate to gain more money.
Social public assistance – attempt to better ability to be good to mankind and take part in community work.
Cognitive involvement – people who are interested in larning, they want to have new information and seek cognition for its ain interest.
Harmonizing to Raymond Wlodkowski, we can separate four rules that motivate grownups to larn:
Inclusion means that scholars respect each other ; they have no fright of menace or humiliation. It is related to positive societal clime.
Attitude is a combination of constructs, information, and emotions. Attitude causes a powerful consequence on human behavior and acquisition. ( E.g. Negative larning experience can impact peopleA?s attitude, engagement and outlooks. )
Meaning – devising, apprehension, and altering significance is a cardinal facet of grownup instruction. Deep significance causes that the experience or thought is connected to an of import end. Meaning sustains engagement.
Competence is an attempt to effectual interaction with the universe. Adults have a strong innate temperament to be competent. They want to use everything what they have learned to the existent.
“ Competence allows a pupil to experience confident when they know that they are expert at what they are larning. Assurance once more supports and motivates more extended acquisition. ”[ 3 ]
This can ensue in a spiralling moral force of competency and assurance.
Teacher should increase, prolong and direct pupil motive. We should form the indispensable motivational conditions. If we want to set up inclusion, we need to make a positive acquisition atmosphere, full of regard to each other. Following undertaking is to develop attitude, it means making a favorable temperament to larning through personal relevancy and pick. To heighten significance is of import to make ambitious and thoughtful acquisition experiences which include learnersA? positions and values. Furthermore, we should breed competency by making an apprehension of scholar effectivity.
How do we cognize if scholars are motivated? There are some discernible indexs of intrinsic motive:
Learners do activities without opposition.
Learners spontaneously relate acquisition.
Learners ask inquiries.
Learners go beyond required work.
Learners are proud of their acquisition and its effects.
Adults have to equilibrate a batch of duties which can take to the barriers against take parting in larning. The most common jobs are deficiency of clip, money, assurance, involvement, deficiency of information, programming job and jobs with kid attention and transit. As instructors of grownups, we have to be after actuating schemes which show learners the relationship between preparation and an expected publicity.
4. Giving Feedback
“ The old expression that pattern makes perfect is non true, but it is true to state that it is pattern the consequences of which are known which makes perfect. ” ( F.C. Barlett )
Feedback, unfavorable judgment, praising and noticing are really of import in the instruction procedure. Teaching grownups is complicated because of the trouble of knocking. There are two unsafe: giving feedback in the incorrect manner and non giving plenty. Without proper feedback, the scholar public presentation can non better. If public presentation can non better, all scholars rapidly lose their involvement. Good feedback is one of the basic wagess of acquisition and critical portion of the learning rhythm goes like this:
In comparing with kids and teens, grownups find it harder to admit that they have made a error, and it is harder for them to unlearn it. The same error can be repeated once more, therefore is of import to give feedback instantly or every bit shortly as possible. The job is non merely to rectify mistakes made on the topographic point, but to happen out some basic misinterpretations from the yesteryear, e.g. when we teach grammar, pupils sometimes have no thought what parts of address are. Until all the misinterpretation from the yesteryear is identified, no advancement can be made. A batch of pupils seem it hard to larn the regulations of English spelling decently. It can be a combination of mechanical and psychological grounds. It is peculiarly difficult to rectify once more perennial errors. The solution how to avoid it is bar ; it means make certain that on the first juncture of a new piece of larning the grownup gets the right reply – “ right first clip ” .[ 4 ]
It is known that people learn by doing errors. It is true but we should recognize when measuring that prise make us experience confident, whereas negative unfavorable judgment makes us self-doubting. Good feedback is given quickly, contains encouraging words, gives elaborate remark on each public presentation, praises the good points before knocking the bed, is focused on knocking the public presentation, non the individual, is concentrated on merely a few errors at a clip and is clear.
Giving feedback demands accomplishments every bit good as tact. We should make a friendly ambiance for constructive feedback. After giving feedback, we should look into that the scholar has understood the message by inquiring open-ended inquiries. Avoid closed ( yes, no ) inquiries, e.g. Have you understood? It is better to get down inquiries with “ State me ” , “ How ” , or “ Why ” .
Finally, a batch of instructors overestimate the measure of feedback they give. To avoid it, seek to happen ways to offer every scholar some feedback in every lesson. As instructors of grownups we should understate the bed consequence of unfavorable judgment although there are a batch of possibilities for misinterpretation because without feedback pupils can non larn and instructors do non learn.
5. Function of the Teacher
“ When the pupil is ready, the instructor appears. ” ( A Buddhist adage )
As we said in one of the old chapter, a batch of big pupils can experience dying when they go back to school after a few old ages being out of the schoolroom. Our occupation as a instructor of grownup pupils is to be positive, friendly and encouraging. Patients help excessively. It is sometimes of import to cognize that older pupils need more clip to react if we ask a inquiry.
Promote your pupils to utilize their ain life experience in the acquisition procedure excessively. As instructors we should understate the carnival of failure and the bad consequence of past acquisition experiences by offering activities which are accomplishable for our pupils and correspond to their degree.
Not merely pupils can hold some concerns. There can be a job for some instructors and it is age. School instructors are ever older than their students and have the advantages of longer instruction. Not so instructors of grownups. They can be younger than their pupils and may even be less intelligent. It is right to hold some concerns about a new group of pupils, but both the job and the solution are in our ain custodies.
What makes a good instructor? As Rogers says, effectual instructor has these features:
A warm personality – accepts all pupils and understand them, be helpful.
Social skill – ability to link the group together without being dominate.
Forming ability – disposal is swimmingly handled.
Skill in descrying and deciding scholar jobs.
Enthusiasm – a batch of oculus contact, varied voice inflection.
Not merely can the personality of a instructor but the leading manner lead to the success or failure of larning. We can separate three different types of leading: dictator, where the leader is rigorous, autocratic, encourages fight and makes all of import determinations himself ; laissez-faire where the instructor does virtually nil unless he is straight asked a inquiry ; and democratic, where the scholars decide what they will make, and the instructor is person who can impact single solutions of jobs. In the group where the instructor behaves magisterially the scholars are submissive and good behaved, but frequently mishear instructions, are competitory, reciprocally belittling and demo marks of aggression and tend to abandon work when the instructor leaves the room. On the contrary, the individualistic group does about nil whether or non the instructor is present. Under democratic leading, the scholars work good together without menu of one surpassing the other. There occur small tenseness or aggression and the impermanent absence of the instructor make no alterations in the sum of work the scholars do.[ 5 ]
It is clear that creativeness is more bucked up in groups where the instructor does non rule. There can develop pleasant societal relationships ; more pupils talk to one another and esteem each other. On the other manus, dominant, aloof, autocratic instructors tend to bring forth either really hostile or subdued group of scholars who are individualists and do non desire to co-operate.
6. Teaching Schemes
Any activity that gets pupils involved is really utile and makes the learning experimental. This includes e.g. little group treatments, function drama, composing or pulling something specific, skits etc. Activities that involve acquiring up and traveling approximately can besides maintain pupils energized. Try to utilize a assortment of learning stuffs and methods and do non bury single differences of your pupils. It is known that single differences addition with age. Take into history that your pupils have a batch of life experience which they can convey to the schoolroom, supply them as many chances for duologue as possible and ask open-ended inquiries so that they can utilize their cognition and experience. Treat all inquiries and remarks with regard. State your pupils the outlooks of the instruction procedure and familiarise them with the course of study, but do non be disappointed when they do non wholly agree with your program. You can discourse it together and do some alterations in conformity with the demands of your pupils. They can assist you to plan the acquisition procedure. Because grownup pupils are jobs centred, allow them cognize how the freshly acquired cognition can be used in specific state of affairss. As a instructor, you should equilibrate between presentation of new stuff, treatment and engagement among pupils and your class program. Teaching schemes for grownups are more effectual if it is learner-centred than instructor-centred.[ 6 ]
6.1. Lectures and Presentations
Lectures and presentations are the most common instruction methods in big instruction. They are sometimes referred to as an economic manner of learning because they do non necessitate about any technician or administrative support. As a instructor usage these methods exhaustively. First, maintain them short. Lectures should take 15 or 20 proceedingss and bound for presentation is even shorter, five proceedingss. Second, your talk should hold a clear beginning, center and terminal ; it means that it is clear to your pupils and if it is clear defined, it can assist pupils to cognize what the aims are before get downing. This technique has a batch of possibilities how to be used. You can present short intensive presentation, which is followed by practising. You can instantly see if your pupils understood your talk. Adults learn best through engagement and activity, so your talk or presentation can be interspersed with group treatment, single undertakings, and audio-visual stuff. In the talks or presentations try to maintain to simple chief points. A batch of grownup pupils need to hold a written support of a new piece of acquisition, but it is known that grownups do non take notes really frequently. Making notes during presentation can be a recreation from understanding ; therefore it is better to teach your pupils non to compose merely listen to you. Fix well-designed printed press releases for them, non really long because it could deter your pupils from reading it. It is better to administer press releases after a talk than earlier ; it is less deflecting. If you are showing, be certain that all scholars are able to see from your point of position. If the presentations are seen from the forepart, the pupil must mentally change by reversal all the procedures.
In general, talks and presentations are likely best used in short subdivisions, with frequent resort to treatment, single pattern, undertaking work etc.
6.2. Role – drama, Simulation and Games
Simulation, role- drama and games play the same or similar functions in linguistic communication instruction. They help bridge the spread between the schoolroom and the existent word. These activities offer a assortment of ways how to do the acquisition procedure more interesting, disputing and lively. As we said in earlier chapters, grownups need to avoid being told how to make something ; they need to seek it out for themselves.
Role-playing refers to the changing of one ‘s behavior to presume a function. It is any speech production activity when you either make person else ( The President, a millionaire, a dad star etc. ) , or when you put yourself into an fanciful state of affairs ( ‘At the eating house ‘ , ‘Checking in at the airdrome ‘ etc. )
“ Role-playing is proposed as an ideal technique to learn linguistic communication because it prepares scholars for the unpredictable nature of real-life communicating, Teachs appropriate linguistic communication usage, and boosts assurance. ”[ 7 ]
Learning takes topographic point when activities are prosecuting and memorable. It is ever better to convey state of affairss to life and maintain them existent and relevant.
Some function playing is simple and does non necessitate any particular readying. It is a normal extension of work done rehearsing duologues and drills ; on the other manus, function drama can be prepared in advanced when the instructor sets up the scene. The stuff must be relevant, brief and believable. Before get downing the function drama, introduce any new vocabulary expected in the subject. After completing the undertaking, pass some clip on rating. This procedure should assist scholars to be satisfied with themselves, so be careful and do non analyze every error made while talking. Students should experience that they can utilize their cognition of the linguistic communication for something utile. Ask your pupils sentiment about the role-play, e.g. : What did you believe of the manner you handled X? How did it compare with the manner you deal with this in existent life? The purpose is to discourse what has happened in the function and what they have learned. Finally, do non bury to thank and praise the participants for their attempts.
Example of function drama:
We can play the picture where the characters are making something. The pupils watch it and so can reiterate some duologues. Then the instructor divides pupils into groups, and they play the characters from the film dawdler, but extend the duologues harmonizing to their ain phantasy. After rectification and treatment they play the same scene once more.
Simulation could be defined as a world of map in a fake and structured environment. Simulation in ELT motivates scholars because simulation activities can affect them in linguistic communication usage. Everyone can take part and rehearse the linguistic communication by interaction, either verbal or non-verbal, in spoken or written signifier. The realistic ambiance in the simulation is achieved through the careful readying of the stimulus stuff. Students take functions where they behave as people in a wider assortment state of affairss which are close to existent life. Simulation encourages creativeness although it begins with the information given to scholars. They need to be clever to bring forth the thought and to finish the simulation.
Example of simulation:
Title: To do a command
5 participants ( each pupil is given a function card with some information about a function and with counsel what to make: Finance Manager, Factory Manager, Gross saless Manager, Office Manager, and Director )
Situation: The company is doing available 3000 euros for upgrading merely one of the four sections. Each section leads a director ( as in the above ) . Each section can do a command and explicate the ground why they need the money. The Director will so denote the successful bidder.
Language maps: Explaining, justifying, supporting, opposing.
Time: 1 hr lesson.
Students are divided in groups of 5. At the terminal of the lesson, the Director studies on the determination for each group.
It can be thought that many grownups do non bask games, but it is non true at all. Adults about like it if they know what the intent of the peculiar game is. They need to cognize what are they rehearsing ( grammar, vocabulary, sentence construction etc. ) , or what skill they can larn or better by utilizing the game. If pupils know and understand the ground of the activity, they will be more active and bask the acquisition. Games are about fun, and they can assist to make the positive and supportive ambiance in the schoolroom. Using assorted games suit to all learning manners: auditory, ocular and kinesthetic. While playing games pupils spend the lesson clip by active conversation in English.
There are some links where you can happen a batch of games for grownup English scholars:
The of import advantage of all above mentioned activities is that they are wholly active methods of larning. Another benefit is that their existent value is frequently in the societal accomplishments they teach.
6.3. Undertaking Work
“ State me and I forget. Show me and I remember. Involve me and I understand. ” ( Chinese adage )
Undertaking work is a agency of communicating and enjoyment based on the combination of theory and pattern. A undertaking is a piece of work where about everything is made by the scholars who work in groups to work out an reliable job. Learners can take the subject and the activities taking to a job processing. Undertaking work is suited for all degrees from novice to progress. There can be involved all scholars mixed in ability, assurance and experience. The undertakings are really originative. The writers of the undertakings collect information from a assortment of beginnings, analyze and derive cognition from it and so put everything together. It is based on studentsA? demands and involvements. Teachers can assist their pupils as ushers or advisers, they should non direct or pull off studentsA? work.
How to get down? Teach your pupils how to make undertaking work. Get down with concrete, small-scale activities. Decide the presentation signifier and the standards for its rating. Undertakings need to be seen or read so be after the last undertaking session as a presentation.
Types of undertakings:
Social public assistance undertakings.
Each undertaking needs to be evaluated. You can fix some remarks on content, design, linguistic communication work and besides the concluding presentation. It can be discussed with all pupils from the category or group.
Advantages of undertaking work are:
It increases motive because all scholars are personally involved.
All four accomplishments – reading, composing, listening and talking are integrated.
Learning outcome – pupils have a concluding merchandise.
Undertaking is an reliable undertaking and therefore the linguistic communication input is more reliable.
There are developed interpersonal dealingss through working in a group.
It is learner centred – contend and methodological analysis can be decided between the scholars and the instructor.
A interruption from everyday.[ 8 ]
Discussion is one of active instruction methods which encourages pupils to happen out solutions and develop critical thought abilities. During treatment, all participants speak to each other, explore, exchange positions, and larn from each other, pupils from instructor, instructor from pupils. Discussion is a state of affairs where pupils and instructor can and make do an unfastened, equal and personal response to a book, current societal job, manner, movies, political relations etc. which needs reading to take it beyond a factual statement. In a good treatment, most members of the group experience willing able to talk when appropriate. Even in a group where everybody contributes, there will be people who talk more than others. Dominant members of groups are frequently able and energetic people, whose enterprise can be used for other group members, either in the thoughts they contribute to general treatment, or in some particular assignments, excess research or short talks they can set about. Silent member or people who speak seldom in a treatment can be soundless as a manner of demoing disapproval of what the remainder of the group are stating or they can be diffident, diffident or lazy or because they prefer to listen to other people instead than to speak themselves. Problems of over-dominant and excessively soundless pupils can be solved by dividing the group into smaller groups for some portion of the category clip. Peoples who ne’er speak in the big group can state a batch in the smaller 1.
Before treatment, you can promote your pupil to fix for it. They can believe about a subject, read some stuffs and write notes and remarks. It is normal that for the first twosome of proceedingss, the treatment is slow and hard to pull off, but if your pupils are prepared for it and you create a friendly ambiance, it can shortly warm up. If your purpose is a treatment which involves everyone, it is of import to run chairs in a circle. It is the best manner as people can see each other and talk together easy than in sitting lecture- manner in consecutive lines.[ 9 ]
In decision, learning grownups should be different from learning kids and striplings. As we said, instructors of grownups should utilize a different manner of learning which is based on the theory of andragogy which suggest that grownups expect learner – centred scenes where they can find their ain ends and form their acquisition harmonizing to their present life demands. The learning techniques should be chosen with respect to demands of all scholars. We should see what attack and methods seem to be appropriate for our pupils. We have to esteem our pupils ‘ different acquisition manners ; we should promote them, actuate them and give them proper feedback. When the pupils know that everything what they learn can be used in a practical manner, they will execute better. A good instructor of grownups is able to esteem all of these specific factors and work with them for the benefit of pupils. This is your challenge as a instructor of grownups.