The chief features of a utile information presentation analysis portion in a research survey is identified as advanced, original and multidimensional in utilizing techniques and tools including sophisticated and precise analyses, combined with inquiry and theory, clear definitions, sing to the specific properties of inquiry and obtaining utile replies by utilizing elaborate analyses ( Beins and McCarthy 2012 )
Turkish piano player Fazil Say has pleaded not-guilty before a tribunal in Turkey charged with contemptuous faith. Say re-tweeted a poetry from a 1000-year old verse form by Omar Khayyam who lived in 11th century Persia which states “ I am non certain if you have besides realised it, but if there ‘s a louse, a non-entity, a rotter, a stealer or a sap, it ‘s ever an Islamist ” . He faces a maximal 18 months in prison. The full verse form mocks spiritual lip service and province prosecuting officers allege that Say was “ explicitly dissing spiritual values ” which is a offense in Turkey. Say denied the charges in forepart of a courtroom packed with fellow creative persons concerned at increasing censoring of the humanistic disciplines in the state ( Article19 2012 ) .
Tonss of the piano player ‘s protagonists had besides gathered outside the courthouse in Istanbul with streamers, one of which called on the governing Islamist-based AK Party to “ go forth the creative persons entirely ” . Egemen Bagis, Turkey ‘s curate in charge of dealingss with the EU, suggested the instance against him should be dismissed, stating the tribunal should see his tweets as being within “ his right to babble ” . Fazil Say has played with the New York Philharmonic, the Berlin Symphony Orchestra and others, and has served as a cultural embassador for the EU ( Artsfreedom 2012b ) .
World-famous Turkish piano player Fazil Say has appeared in tribunal in Istanbul charged with motivating hatred and dissing the values of Muslims. He is being prosecuted over Twitter stations mocking Muslims, in a instance which has rekindled concern about spiritual influence in the state. Mr Say, who denies the charges, said late he was “ astonied ” at holding to look before Judgess. Rejecting an acquittal call, the tribunal adjourned the instance until 18 February.
Prosecutors brought the charges against Mr Say in June. He faces a maximal sentence of 18 months in prison although letter writers say any sentence is likely to be suspended.
The indictment against him cites some tweets, including a retweet by Mr Say which says: “ I am non certain if you have besides realised it, but if there ‘s a louse, a non-entity, a rotter, a stealer or a sap, it ‘s ever an Allah-ist. ” ( BBC 2012 )
4.3.2. Case Study 2
Freedom of look and censoring. It ‘s ne’er been one without the other in Turkey. In a turn of sarcasm, Turkey is at one time observing the lifting of decades-old prohibitions on 453 books and 645 periodicals while waiting for the destiny of two classics whose destinies are yet to be decided. One of these classics is John Steinbeck ‘s “ Of Mice and Men. ” The other one is the darling kids ‘s book “ My Sweet Orange Tree ” by Brazilian author Jose Mauro de Vasconcelos.
As portion of the 3rd bundle of judicial reforms, Ankara ‘s Chief Public Prosecutor ‘s Office late decided to raise prohibitions on 453 books. Some rubrics like Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels ‘ “ The Communist Manifesto, ” Lenin ‘s “ State and Revolution ” or Stalin ‘s “ The History of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union ( Bolsheviks ) , ” are apprehensible, given that they were banned in the late sixtiess or early 1970s.
On the list are besides books by Turkish writers like NazA±m Hikmet, Aziz Nesin, A°smail BeAYikci and Abdurrahim Karakoc , whose books were banned due to the political ambiance of the clip. But there are besides the rubrics that makes one abrasion one ‘s caput, such as the “ National Geographic Atlas of the World, ” banned every bit tardily as 1987, and an issue of the Italian amusing book “ Capitan Miki, ” or known as “ Tommiks ” here in Turkey.
Writing for the free address watchdog Indexoncensorship.org on the unfortunate destiny of “ Tommiks ” two hebdomads ago, Kaya Genc summarizes the grounds for the amusing hero ‘s persecution in 1961: “ The generals, who hanged a democratically elected premier curate the same twelvemonth [ mentioning to the 1960 putsch ] , accused Captain Miki of holding encouraged indolence and a ‘spirit of venturesomeness ‘ among Turkish people. ”
While 100s of wrongs were made right, new wrongs are on the manner for Turkey as of last hebdomad. Following a ailment by a parent, the Education Ministry launched a disciplinary probe on a secondary instructor in Istanbul for giving a reading assignment from Vasconcelos ‘ “ My Sweet Orange Tree. ”
The ailment was made on the evidences that the book included obscene content, slang linguistic communication and a secret plan that clashed with Turkish ethical motives and values. The 1968 book tells the narrative of small Zeze as he discovers life through poorness, maltreatment, household and the decease of a loved 1. The portion that offended the now ill-famed parent is where Zeze recites a vocal he overheard from his instructors, hankering for a bare adult female under the moonshine, and Zeze ‘s male parent ‘s daze upon hearing it. So much for life copying art.
Sarcasms seem to abound as the book is among the 100 cardinal texts recommended by the Education Ministry. “ Of Mice and Men ” is besides among the ministry ‘s list of 100 Cardinal Novels. And it is the A°zmir Education Directorate ‘s books committee that is seeking to censor certain parts of the novel that are “ unfit for educational usage ” for “ immoral subdivisions. ”
“ Of Mice and Men, ” in fact, is on the list of the American Library Association ‘s Most Challenged Books of the twenty-first Century, puting 4th in the Top 100 Banned/Challenged Books ( the Harry Potter series is at the top ) .
The novel has been challenged 54 times in the U.S. since its publication in 1936 for “ advancing mercy killing, ” “ excusing racial slurs ” and being “ anti-business. ” For the A°zmir Education Directorate, it ‘s all about sex. The portion confronting a prohibition is where Whit, a immature worker on the spread, invites George for a Saturday dark trip to the local whorehouse and features no more than guiltless raillery among the two work forces.
Steinbeck ‘s plants are n’t new to the wrath of censoring, at place and here in Turkey. “ The Grapes of Wrath, ” the novel that helped him win the Pulitzer Prize, instantly became a mark in the U.S. for being racy for its clip of publication in 1939. The large inquiry is why 11 publishing houses were charged in 1973 for printing the novel: The reply is for “ spreading propaganda unfavourable to the province. ”
“ Unfavorable to the province ” seems to be the norm in Turkey when censoring books and directing writers, publishing houses and transcribers to imprison. Motivating spiritual hatred and reviewing province panic are the evidences to assail books and those behind those books. The Kurdish inquiry and the Armenian race murder are the biggest literary landmines. Unfortunately, censoring a book for its slang linguistic communication or for including duologue on traveling to brothels seems guiltless when you live in Turkey ( Guler 2013 ) .
4.3.3. Case Study 3
An art exhibition in Turkey has been cancelled by organizers after municipal functionaries were accused of censoring. Three exposure were removed from the exhibit titled “ AykA±rA± ” ( Contrary ) by functionaries from the A°zmir Metropolitan Municipality after newspaper studies suggested some exposure contradicted spiritual and societal values. Another study said that the exhibition insulted “ spiritual values has alarmed the state. ” Following the remotion of the images by governments, organizers A°zmir Photography Art Association ( IFOD ) pulled the exhibition. Among the exposures that caused contentions were two headscarfed adult females snoging each other, two work forces snoging each other, and a headscarfed adult female have oning a Bikini ( Index 2012 ) .
4.3.4. Case Study 4
In a recent drama in Turkey, two histrions wore trench coats in their function as bravos presenting as deviants be aftering to blink misss near a school.
The scene and its subjects of nakedness and sexual corruption are at the centre of a argument over freedom of look in Turkish humanistic disciplines, where the Islamic-rooted opinion party has become progressively critical of dramas and telecasting shows deemed to go against moral or spiritual values.
Turkey, a campaigner for European Union rank, is less rigorous than many other states in the Muslim universe. But Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan on Sunday backed a move by Istanbul ‘s Islamist city manager to take over decision-making at Istanbul City Theaters, a theatre company which is funded by the metropolis and staged the drama that outraged conservative critics.
Erdogan besides threatened to privatise state-run theatres – basically cutting their support – in response to surrenders and protests by secular-minded creative persons against alleged political intervention.
That stoked frights that the authorities, which has a strong electoral authorization, might be seeking to set an Islamic cast on day-to-day life in this preponderantly Muslim state that has long been proud of its secular political system.
Erdogan for his portion accuses creative persons of haughtiness.
“ They have started to mortify and look down on us and all conservativists, ” Erdogan said.
The premier curate ‘s comments triggered an nightlong sit-in by 100s of creative persons outside an Istanbul theatre. The protest came yearss after 100s of creative persons, crushing membranophones, marched through a chief metropolis street.
Artists marched once more on May Day with streamers that read: “ Oh Sultan! Take your custodies off theatres. ” “ This is political intervention on freedom of art, ” said Nazif Uslu, an histrion and functionary from the Theater Actors ‘ Association of Turkey.
The scene with the exhibitionists comes in the political comedy “ Secret Obscenities ” by Chilean dramatist Marco Antonio de la Parra. It criticizes human rights maltreatments in Chile during the absolutism of Gen. Augusto Pinochet.
Yildirim Fikret Urag, the Turkish manager of “ Secret Obscenities, ” said the drama will probably be removed from the repertory of Istanbul City Theaters due to coerce from the board of the pro-Islamic municipality.
The drama, which was restricted to audiences above the age of 16, was described as “ coarseness at the custodies of the province ” by Iskender Pala, a conservative editorialist for day-to-day Zaman newspaper. Pala, nevertheless, admitted he did non watch the drama but merely read its book.
“ The drama has nil to make with lewdness, it is pure black wit, ” Urag said. The drama was staged more than 70 times between February and mid-April as originally scheduled. “ I think, the word `obscenities ‘ in its name and the ticket of plus 16 are used as alibis to prehend control of theatres. ”
Culture Minister Ertugrul Gunay sought to reassure the populace.
“ I wish for everybody to acquire rid of this concern. The artistic and cultural life in Turkey will in no manner travel rearward, ” Gunay said.
But Erdogan suggested that province support for theatre should be contingent on theatrical productions that meet province blessing. “ If support is needed, so as the authorities we provide sponsorship to dramas we want, ” he said.
Erdogan ‘s proposal came after Mustafa Isen, secretary general of the presidential castle, proposed set uping conservative artistic norms. Critics have alleged that the authorities wants more dramas by Islamist dramatists.
The authorities is presently size uping a hebdomadal Television constabulary show, Behzat C, in which the lead character, a homicide investigator, drinks alcohol, expletives, beats suspects and had an out-of-wedlock matter.
“ The channel that broadcasts Behzat C has been twice punished for aerating plans advancing intoxicant and coffin nails and which could make possible injury to moral development at an hr when immature people can watch it, ” Deputy Prime Minister Bulent Arinc said. “ We ‘re supervising the broadcasts closely. ”
The broadcaster, Star TV, said it has no programs to take the show. But Muzaffer Balci, the president of the state ‘s Green Crescent Society, which fights intoxicant and baccy ingestion, has predicted it will non last.
“ A police officer who is ever keeping a bottle of intoxicant in his manus can non be promoted as a hero, ” he said on his organisation ‘s web site.
( Foxnews 2012 ) .
4.3.5. Case Study 5
The diary Mimesis is delivered to metropolis and town libraries in Turkey by the state ‘s Ministry of Culture.
The formal brief sent by ElazA±AY City Library Administrator, Ahmet Pirincci, to Bosphorus University Press declares, “ It is established by our readers that the 19th Issue of Mimesis Journal on Theatre Translation and Research contains some obscene images and drawings ” .
The brief provinces that the metropolis library received three parents ‘ requests of damages claiming that the diary corrupts kids ‘s ethical motives. ElazA±AY City Library disposal, who besides finds the journal ‘obscene ‘ , provinces that they have banned the diary from the metropolis and town libraries of ElazA±AY , and the diary should n’t be sent once more to these libraries even by contribution.
Mimesis is an academic diary and the mentoined article is an academic article written by Sarah Culpepper Stroup, who is an associate professor at Classicss at the Universtiy of Washington.
The decision maker of the library interpreted the drawings dated to fifth century BC as ‘immoral ‘ , disregarding their context, and an academic diary is removed from the shelves of the mentioned libraries by being labeled as ‘obscene ‘ merely by looking at the drawings in it.
Immediately after the imperativeness release of Mimesis Journal, ( mimesis-dergi.org/2012/06/mimesis-yayin-kurulundan-sansur-olayina-dair-aciklama/ ) the forbiddance has had a broad media coverage. National newspapers reported the prohibition as a censoring. Besides there had been impressive unfavorable judgment in the societal media against the forbiddance.
Besides, institutional statements have been released ; remakable constitutions such as Turkish Publishers Association, Association of Thearte Critics, ASSITEJ ( International Association of Theatres for Children and Young People ) , Contemporary Drama Association, Nar Arts Center condemned the prohibition. ( For these informations, see mimesis-dergi.org/konu/1-haber/mimesis-mustehcen-bulundu/ )
The author of the article, Sarah Culpepper Stroup, has sent a missive, reflecting her perturbation, but besides historicizing the prohibitions on the drama “ Lysistrata ” which is an anti war drama but invariably labeled as immoral by the conservative and military outlook. She states that “ this is the first clip that an article on the drama is labelled as immoral ” . ( mimesis-dergi.org/2012/06/47577/ )
Last statement has come from the Ministry of Culture and Tourism Head Office of Libraries and Press, apologising for the mentioned forbiddance against Mimesis. They declare that they have n’t been informed about this forbiddance and they do non O.K. it at all.
( Artsfreedom 2012a ) .
4.3.6. Case Study 6
In a narrative which could hold come directly from the clip of the grand Turks, when one incorrect word could seal your destiny, the Turkish premier curate, Recep Tayyip Erdogan, is endangering to retreat province support from the state ‘s theaters after his girl said she was insulted by an histrion during a drama.
Erdogan, who dabbled in recreational dramatics as a pupil, has a repute for have oning his bosom on his arm. But his philippics against “ chesty, alcoholic histrions ” and an arts constitution he claims holds ordinary people in disdain have shocked Turkey.
Theaters can non take authorities subsidies and so knock the manus that feeds them, he said. “ They have started to mortify and look down on us and all conservativists. ”
Actors took to the streets in protest after civil retainers were handed artistic control of Istanbul theaters overnight last month in a separate row over an “ obscene ” drama.
“ If support is needed, so we the authorities can back up the dramas we want, ” Erdogan said. “ I am privatizing the theater. No theaters are being run by the province in about any developed state. Here there is freedom. When we privatise the theaters you can play whatever you want. Sorry, but you can non acquire your wage from the municipality and so knock the direction. There is no such absurdness. ”
He railed against the “ despotic haughtiness ” of intellectuals who ever think they know best: “ For God ‘s interest, who are you? From where make you acquire the authorization to show sentiments on every issue, to reason that you know everything? Are theatres your monopoly in this state? Are arts your monopoly? These yearss are gone. ”
What some are naming “ Turkey ‘s civilization war ” began in April last twelvemonth when his youngest girl, Sumeyye Erdogan, 30, walked out of a public presentation of Young Osman at the Ankara province theater. Its narrative of a immature, reforming sultan overthrown by a loutish armed forces has a rich reverberation for the Erdogans and the AK party, who have broken the ground forces ‘s clasp on Turkey. What precisely happened during an jury-rigged sequence when the coarse soldiers growl at the audience is still disputed, but she claims she was humiliated by an histrion, Tolga Tuncer, who picked on her because she was have oning a headscarf, miming her mastication gum and doing violative “ haka-style ” gestures at her.
In an ardent missive to Tuncer on Facebook, she appealed for the sort of tolerance she was accorded in Britain and the US. “ As an creative person you should be foremost to handle people who are different with regard aˆ¦ you had better get used to people with headscarves. One-half of the people of Turkey are adult females and many of them wear headscarves. I do n’t desire to populate my life contending you. I will go on to love art and theater and go on go toing the theater with my headscarf. ”
Suspended and summoned before the civilization curate, who said histrions had “ no right to interact with their audiences ” , Tuncer refused to apologize for his actions, which he said were portion of the drama, but said he was regretful she had been offended. He claimed he did non cognize who she was and picked on her merely because she was in the forepart row and was masticating gum.
Then last month ‘s contention over an allegedly obscene drama was used by Istanbul ‘s city manager, an Erdogan protege, to take artistic control of its municipal theaters after a sacredly conservative dramatist condemned Chilean dramatist Marco Antonio de la Parra ‘s Daily Obscene Secrets without seeing it as “ coarseness at the custodies of the province ” . The drama, an onslaught on the values of Chile ‘s military absolutism, which had much in common with the Turkish generals who one time locked Erdogan up, had been performed more than 70 times without protest, but is now being removed from the repertory.
Humanistic disciplines administrations described the onslaughts as a “ pointless witchhunt ” , indicating out that the theater is subsidised in about every developed state and that Turkey ‘s province theaters are the fullest in Europe, thanks to low monetary values and a largely traditional repertory that entreaties to conservative and spiritual audiences in the regulating AK party ‘s Anatolian heartlands.
The crisis deepened this hebdomad as Istanbul ‘s theater festival opened. Its manager, Dr Dikmen Gurun, appealed for composure and said that cuts would be a catastrophe for smalltown Anatolia, where most phases are subsidised. Others say it will hit the Turkish Television industry, which relies on theaters to develop histrions for its series, which have immense followerss throughout the Balkans and the Middle East.
Despite Erdogan ‘s repute as reformist, human rights groups are worried by an ambiance of self-censorship, while the resistance accuses his AK party of utilizing autocratic legal machinery left over from military regulation to sabotage the state ‘s long secular tradition that it was meant to protect.
( Gibbons 2012 ) .
4.3.7. Case Study 7
Laminitis of the theater Nedim Saban stated that the drama was censored because of a “ Down with Fascism ” prop. Hurriyet ‘s newsman Gulbahar KarakuAY quoted Nedim Saban as stating:
“ Unfortunately the drama was censored because of its props. The decor is being censored! They are still demanding to see condemnable studies of our histrions, and [ Erzurum municipality ] demand to see the manuscript of the drama. They have been blacklisting histrions in this state for many old ages. ” The theatre drama is adapted from Emile Ajar ‘s fresh ‘La vie devant soi ‘ which tells about a Judaic adult female populating in an Arabic vicinity in France looking after kids whose female parents are cocottes.
( Artsfreedom 2012c ) .
4.3.7. Case Study 8
There are claims of censoring in Istanbul as eight creative persons and an creative person collective have made a joint determination to retreat from the Istanbul Modern museum ‘s on-going World and Dream exhibition, which chronicles the plants of female creative persons from Turkey since the 1900s. The contention began when creative person Bubi Hayon ‘s work was rejected during a charity auction for the Turkish museum so during a panel treatment at the museum earlier this hebdomad creative person Muruvvet TurkyA±lmaz announced that she would be retreating her work from the show in response to museum ‘s actions. The argument has since snowballed into a treatment about the function of modern-day art in Turkey and the jobs associated with the fact that all major cultural establishments in the state are backed by corporate entities that lack transparence.
The affair has been leaching on Facebook and other societal webs all hebdomad but legion efforts by Hyperallergic to make the creative persons for remark have so far proved unsuccessful.
Today, the Istanbul-based intelligence beginning Today ‘s Zaman has published one of the first English-language articles on the contention. They explain that TurkyA±lmaz has been joined by seven other creative persons ( Ceren A-ykut, Gozde A°lkin, GuneAY Terkol, A°nci Furni, Ekin SaclA±oAYlu, Neriman Polat, Leyla Gediz ) and one creative person collective, AtA±lKunst, who have all requested that the museum take their plants from the exhibition.
Harmonizing to Today ‘s Rain tree:
Asked whether the museum will manus the creative persons their plants of art back, A°stanbul Modern ‘s main conservator Levent CalA±koAYlu told Today ‘s Zaman on Thursday that the museum “ respects the determination of the creative persons and will move in conformity with their petitions. ”
A beginning near to the creative persons tells Hyperallergic that the creative persons are working on a imperativeness release now and it will be available shortly. The group has started a Turkish/English request online and they are inquiring the museum to apologise to Hayon and the metropolis ‘s art community as a whole.
Hurriyet Daily News studies that on December 27 a figure of creative persons entered Istanbul Modern with a protest streamer that read “ There is censoring in this museum. ” The newsman besides spoke to the creative person who gave a context for the claims of censoring:
“ First Istanbul Modern requested a work, without stating me any construct. They told me that they wanted to exhibit the work during the jamboree dark and so do the work a portion of the sole catalogue, ” Bubi ( David Hayon ) told the Hurriyet Daily News.
The creative person says the museum informed him he free to make what he wanted:
Upon this petition Hayon created a big place with a bed pan in the center of it.
“ With this work I have criticized the general museum thought which came from 1900s, ” said Hayon, adding that he criticized the “ sacred ” thought of sing a museum. “ My purpose was non to be political. ”
However, things did non travel as Hayon planned. The museum refused to roll up the work and did non exhibit it. “ It is non of import whether they like it. There is something more of import than that, ” Hayon said.
The attack was more like a censoring procedure, harmonizing to Hayon. “ The work was found contradictious and inconvenient. ”
The International Association of Art Critics ‘s Turkish division and the queerly named Turkish National Committee of the International Plastic Arts Association are back uping Istanbul Modern ‘s place and they have offered their definition of censoring, which they claim can merely be called as such if a 3rd party, such as a authorities, a local authorization, a ministry, a municipality or the constabulary, were involved.
This argument comes at a clip when Turkey is turn outing to be a turning presence in the international art scene with a burgeoning gallery scene, turning museum civilization and modern-day art auctions that have attracted the attending of secondary market spectators.
( Vartanian 2011 ) .
4.4. Analysis of the Case Studies in Turkey ‘s censored Humanistic disciplines
Turkey is challenging a new study that names it as the universe ‘s prima prison guard of journalists, with tonss behind bars – in front of Iran, China and other autocratic provinces.
The on-going international attending to Turkey ‘s intervention of the media has raised hopes that reforms could be forthcoming.
It casts this authorities, with its roots in political Islam, in the same rough autocratic visible radiation the premier curate frequently used to portray the secular, military-backed authoritiess that one time dominated Turkey.
“ At this peculiar clip, when Turkey has become an even more of import regional and universe power, and when Turkey has made so many large stairss toward democratisation, there is a existent job here, ” she said, “ and the job is that there is a clime of fright and self-censorship among large subdivisions of the media. ”
( Kenyon 2012 ) .