Harmonizing to current lingual, psychological, and neurolinguistic attacks, the term bilingual refers to all those people who use two or more linguistic communications or idioms in their mundane lives ( Grosjean, 1994 ) . Whilst bilingualism is exhibiting as the phenomena globally among kids and stripling, in the unfortunate instance of which the individual goes through encephalon hurts, aphasia[ 1 ]in both L1 and L2 is one sort of post-traumatic linguistic communication damage. In Frabbro ‘s ( 2001 ) survey about aphasic talkers, it was apparent that 65 % of the topic exhibited similar harm to both linguistic communications, 20 % and 15 % had L2 and L1 impaired more severally. With these statistics, insightful surveies in station encephalon hurt bilingual ‘s 2nd linguistic communication acquisition are in a dominant and important place.
In this essay, an rating of rehabilitative activities in the position of 2nd linguistic communication acquisition will establish on a certification of a station shot bilingual stripling – ML. ML is an 18-year-old female who was clinically diagnosed as aphasia which normally associates with shot. She is in an expatriate household from south India and resides Singapore, her native linguistic communication is Hindi and she is a younger scholar of 2nd linguistic communication – English. Harmonizing to the certification provided by her address linguistic communication diagnostician, monolingual rehabilitation was conducted in English, which is her L2. Although ML ‘s vocabulary is within functional bound as judged by the address linguistic communication diagnostician, she presented dis-fluent address and damage in word-retrieval in the first rating appraisal. The damages are related to her proficiency in vocabulary and her semantic processing. Thus some of the rehabilitative activities targeted at cognitive-linguistic facilitation and Diadochokinetic rate ( DDK )[ 2 ]. Alternatively, these activities will be discussed in acquisition of vocabulary and phonemics in this essay severally.
Although biographical factor, such as age of acquisition and the grade of linguistic communication proficiency and exposure, are known to impact lexical-semantic, lexical semantic processing is proficiency-dependent ( Tschirren, et al. , 2011 ) . However, in ML ‘s instance, her proficiency before and after shot was unable to be determined as no proficiency trials were done. However, the rehabilitation exercises carried out to better ML ‘s word-retrieval troubles was cognitive-linguistic facilitation, semantic function preparation to be specific. To lucubrate, ML was assisted by speech linguistic communication diagnostician to do usage of the context of the peculiar word that is debatable in semantic processing, for illustration by depicting the use of the object or the environment where the object appears.
On the other manus, in the range of vocabulary acquisition in 2nd linguistic communication acquisition, when a pupil are larning a new linguistic communication, frequence is non the lone thing that makes words more accessible ; the presence of blood relation and borrowed words can besides be exploited for vocabulary development ( Lightbown & A ; Spada, 2006 ) . It seems that the focal point on the frequence of seeing and hearing a word and tie ining it with the significance helps to set up the word in memory steadfastly. On contrary, the focal point in facilitation of the word for station shot bilinguals is similar but somewhat diverse from vocabulary acquisition 2nd linguistic communication larning – it emphasizes more on the association between the vocabulary and the semantic mention alternatively of the frequence. But yet, the frequence of the words is non to be neglected.
Harmonizing to ML ‘s address diagnostician, ML was noted with betterments in high frequence words, but troubles on colloquial undertakings and high-ranking verbal undertakings ( e.g. presentation ) were still apparent. Despite the complex cognitive procedure, the sweetening in word handiness induced by frequence of the words is good recognized in this semantic function activity in the impression of 2nd linguistic communication acquisition. During the semantic function activity, ML was foremost instructed by speech linguistic communication diagnostician on the construct of using the environing belongingss of the targeted word during therapy session, and later ML was encourage to pattern on her ain. The vocabulary is more easy learnable by ML due to the high frequence of the words being seen, heard and understood in the context of semantic function. And hence this peculiar context of semantic function can be considered as the meaningful brushs of a word to assist to firmly set up in memory, as suggested by Nation ( 2001 ) . These brushs are indispensable for scholar to recover the word in fluid address or automatically understand the significance of the word when it occurs in new context ( Lightbown & A ; Spada, 2006 ) . The consequence of word retrival and fluid address is precisely the end of semantic function in ML ‘s address linguistic communication rehabilitation.
To cast some meaningful visible radiation on the DDK drills, the chief focal point of this rehabilitative activity is to better the unwritten motor map. To exemplify, the patient might be required to bring forth jumping sounds like ‘pataka ‘ drills to pattern the rapid motions in jointing the consonants /p/ , /t/ and /k/ . Although it was non officially accessed or clinically diagnosed, ML showed groundss of mild verbal dyspraxia[ 3 ], and it was apparent on phonetically complex constructions with polysyllabic construction. Through this may be sufficient to turn to the purpose about motor map. However, in respect of phonemics acquisition in 2nd linguistic communication acquisition, it was found that scholar who received pronunciation instructions stressing emphasis and beat ( i.e. suprasegmental ) were judged to be easier to understand than scholars who received instructions focused on single sounds ( i.e. segmental ) ; even though segmentals increase the truth of single sounds, this does non assist with the hearers ‘ perceptual experience of the intelligibility of their address to others ( Lightbown & A ; Spada, 2006 ) . In other words, pronunciation direction focused on suprasegmentals is so more effectual in communicative facet of the address. Upon this impression, it seems contradictory between the DDK and the accent of phonemics acquisition in 2nd linguistic communication acquisition. While ML exhibited dis-fluencies in address and her suprasegmental facet of address ( e.g. modulation ) was accessed to be within functional bound, DDK does non turn to the communicative attack in get the better ofing the dis-fluencies, alternatively it addresses the production of single sounds.
The concern is now drawn at whether the suprasegmental countries, which are considered more likely to consequence communications ( Celce-Murcia, Brinton, & A ; Goodwin, 1996 ) in 2nd linguistic communication acquisition, is necessary to be taken into consideration of station encephalon hurt 2nd linguistic communication acquisition. Revising the nature of DDK, because of the cognitive damage, it emphasizes the unwritten motor map through pattern on single sounds. Hence the essentialness of segmental facet of address is to be regarded as the foundation to continue to suprasegmental facet, to the extent of station encephalon hurt bilingual ‘s 2nd linguistic communication rehabilitation and acquisition. Without the decontextualized segmental patterns like DDK to better the eloquence at word degree in jointing complex polysyllabic constructions, it is difficult for one to continue to the accent on suprasegmental facet of address. Therefore the segmentals should non be neglected in 2nd linguistic communication acquisition of station encephalon hurt bilinguals.
In decision, scholar ‘s development in vocabulary and phonemics in 2nd linguistic communication acquisition can be integrated into station encephalon hurt bilingual ‘s 2nd linguistic communication learning/rehabilitation. As detailed antecedently, the vocabulary acquisition in 2nd linguistic communication acquisition and cognitive-linguistic facilitation portion the same accent of frequences and brushs of words. In add-on, the two facets of phonemics acquisition in 2nd linguistic communication larning supply some meaningful part to betterments of station encephalon hurt bilinguals ‘ rehabilitation on address eloquence. In short, the rules, theoretical accounts and hypothesis in 2nd linguistic communications larning are able to supply valuable penetrations to the 2nd linguistic communication learning/rehabilitation of station encephalon hurt bilinguals. The perspective deduction of incorporating the two countries is addressed in the survey of neurolinguitics.
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This essay attributes to Mr. Erick Tan, Director and Consultant Speech-Language Therapist of Quantum Lip Pte. Ltd. I would wish to thank him for supplying the certification stuffs and his professional rating on the patient.