Integral Part Of Natural Language Processing English Language Essay

Abstraction: -Machine Translation is one of the cardinal countries of focal point of Natural Language Processing where interlingual rendition is done from Source Language to Target Language continuing the significance of the sentence. Large sum of research is being done in this field. However, research in Machine Translation remains extremely localized to the peculiar beginning and mark linguistic communications due to the big fluctuations in the syntactical building of linguistic communications. Inflection is an of import portion to acquire the right interlingual rendition. Inflection is fundamentally the adding of appropriate postfix to the word harmonizing to the sentence construction to obtain the meaningful signifier of the word. This paper presents the execution of the Inflection for English to Marathi Translation. The inflexion of Nouns, Pronouns, Verbs, Adjectives are done on the footing of the other words and their properties in the sentence. This paper gives the regulations for inflecting the above Parts-of-Speech.

Keywords: Natural Language Processing, Machine Translation, Parsing, Marathi, Parts-Of-Speech, Inflection, Vibhakti, Prataya, Adpositions, Preposition, Postposition, Penn Tags.

Introduction

Machine interlingual rendition, an built-in portion of Natural Language Processing, is of import for interrupting the linguistic communication barrier and easing the inter-lingual communicating. Marathi, an Indo-european linguistic communication derived from Sanskrit, is spoken by 70 million people in India. The book presently used in Marathi is called “ baalbodha ” which is a modified version of Devnagri Script [ 1 ] . While interpreting one linguistic communication to another changing of the word order and its signifier harmonizing to the grammar of the mark linguistic communication is really of import. For the range of this paper the Source Language is English and Target Language is Marathi.

WORD ORDERING IN LINGUISTICS

The syntactic construction of a linguistic communication is determined by the word order. Wordss are classified into 8 parts-of-speech ( POS ) [ noun, pronoun, adjectival, verb, concurrence, preposition, ejaculation ] . The agreement of these POS in sentences is determined harmonizing to the construction the linguistic communication follows. English follows Subject-Verb-Object ( SVO ) construction while Marathi follows Subject-Object-Verb ( SOV ) construction [ 2 ] .Along with Marathi other Indo-european linguistic communication like Hindi, besides follow the SOV construction.

IMPORTANCE OF ADPOSITIONS IN LINGUISTICS

Adpositions are words which can happen before or after a phrase, word, or a clause that is necessary to finish the significance of a given sentence. Adpositions are chiefly categorized as:

Prepositions

Postpositions

Circumpositions

Prepositions

Prepositions are defined as the words placed before the complement [ 3 ] . Prepositions are used in English.

Examples:

I value my household above everything else.

Postpositions

Postpositions are words which come after the complement. [ 2 ] Postpositions are used in Marathi, Hindi, Urdu, Korean, Turkish, and Nipponese.

Examples:

Ekh ckdh izR ; sd xks’Vh is { kk ekb & A ; ; k dqVqackyk tkLr egRo nsrks.

Circumpositions

Circumpositions are words that appear on both sides of the complement. They are used in English, Dutch, Swedish, and French.

Examples:

I will exert on a regular basis from now on.

The linguistic communications which follow SOV Structure usage postpositions. Hence, while interpreting an English sentence.

( SVO construction ) to a Marathi sentence ( SOV construction ) , we need to alter the prepositions ( of English ) to postpositions ( of Marathi ) . This is a major issue which needs to be resolved for inflecting the nouns, verbs and instances ( Vibhakti ) .

Inflection

Generating inflexion of a word is of import to retain the right signifier of the word in Marathi. Wordss can be classified in two types depending on the Inflection as [ 1 ] :

Inflectional Wordss:

Noun

Pronoun

Adjectival

Verb

Non-Inflectional Wordss:

Adverb

Preposition

Ejaculation

Concurrence

The words are inflected on the footing of altering Gender ( Masculine, Feminine, Neuter ) , Multiplicity ( Singular, Plural ) , Tense ( Present, Past, Future ) , and Case ( Nominative, Accusative, Instrumental, Dative, Ablative, Genitive, Locative, Vocative ) .

Noun Inflection

Noun inflexion is performed on the footing of alteration in Gender, Multiplicity or Case ( Vibhakti ) . The inflexion of a word can be determined from the word terminations. Following table describes the word terminations and its inflexions.

Table I

TERMINATING VOWEL OF ITS ROOT [ 2 ] .

Ending Vowel of the Root

Plural Inflection

Masculine

Feminine

Neuter

V

No alteration

vk bZ

,

vk

,

vk

aˆ¦

B

No alteration

No alteration

No alteration

bZ

No alteration

vk ; k

,

m

No alteration

No alteration

No alteration

mw

No alteration

V

,

,

aˆ¦

vk

bZ

Z, s

aˆ¦

vk

aˆ¦

vks

No alteration

vk

aˆ¦

vkS

No alteration

aˆ¦

aˆ¦

The above tabular array will be found helpful in finding the plural signifier of a noun by ending vowel of its root. For case, the plural signifier of “ ck ; dks ” must be “ vk ” doing up “ ck ; dk ” as “ vk ” stands opposite to the vowel “ vks ” in the column super scribed Feminine [ 2 ] .

The word “ xk ; ” must be inflected to “ xk ; H ” as “ V ” would be replaced by “ bZ ” . Another illustration of a word-ending in “ bZ ” , “ ik ; jh ” would acquire inflected as “ ik ; j~ ; K ” wherein “ ; K ” is the word stoping.

Case is an inflected signifier of Noun by which its relation to other words in the sentence is indicated.

For illustration:

He drove the auto.

“ Roentgen ; kus xkMh pkyoyh ”

TABLE II

CASE TERMINATIONS [ 2 ] .

Case ( Vibhakti )

Remarkable

Plural

Nominative

— –

— –

Accusative

cubic decimeter ] yk

cubic decimeter ] United Kingdom

Instrumental

us ] f ” K

uh degree Fahrenheit ” K

Dative

cubic decimeter ] yk

cubic decimeter ] United Kingdom

Ablative

gwu mwu

gwu mwu

Possessive

pk ] pH ] PS

pk ] pH ] PS

Locative

R

R

Vocative

— –

United Kingdom

Verb Inflection

When we translate the verb utilizing Marathi Dictionary we get the gerundial signifier i.e it is given with the atom “ .ks ” .

Examples:

“ [ ksG.ks ” – to play

For inflecting the verb, foremost we need to deduce the verbal root ( /kkrq ) and so add personal terminations to it, to bespeak its relation to the noun. We can acquire verbal roots by dropping the atom “ .ks ” from the gerundial signifier Inflection of the verb depends upon the undermentioned specifics:

The Gender ( fyax ) : Masculine, Feminine and Neuter.

The Number ( opu ) : Remarkable, Plural.

Person ( iq # ‘k ) : First, Second and Third.

Tenses ( dekagram ) : Present, Past and Future.

Sometimes personal terminations may besides depend on tempers ( vFkZ ) , the buildings ( iz ; ksx ) , the participial and the verbal nouns ( /kkrqlk/khrs ) [ 2 ] .

The tabular array for verb inflexion is given below ( Table no. III ) .

Table Three

RULES FOR DHAATU TO VERB [ 1 ] .

Adjectival inflexion

Adjective is a verb which is joined to a noun to measure up it. Inflection of adjectival depends upon gender, multiplicity, fond regard of postpositions to the noun modified by such nonsubjective. When possessive instance shapers or some prepositions are attached to nouns, it produces adjectival [ 4 ] .

Table Four

ADJECTIVE TERMINATION FOR “ vk ” [ 4 ]

Changing portion in masculine signifier

Feminine

Neuter

Oblique signifier

vk

bzzZ

,

; K

Pronoun inflexion

A pronoun is a word that can be substituted for a noun or a noun phrase.Pronoun inflexion is similar to noun inflexion but there are some particular instances which need to manage seperately. For the verbs such as “ like ” , “ privation ” , “ will ” , “ demand ” and “ would ” , the pronoun inflexion are different than general instances. Some sentences have the same construction alongwith the parse tree, gender, multiplicity, instances but have different interlingual rendition of pronoun. These sentences will typically include the above mentioned verbs.

Following table determines the interlingual rendition of pronouns if the sentence has any of the verbs “ like ” , “ privation ” , “ will ” , “ demand ” or “ would ” .

Table Volt

EXCEPTIONAL PRONOUN INFLECTION.

English word

Multiplicity

Mahratti

I

Second

eyk

We

Phosphorus

vkEgkyk

You

Second

rqyk

You

Phosphorus

rqEgkyk

He

Second

R ; kyk

She

Second

fryk

They

Phosphorus

R ; kauk

Following instances gives a comparing of different instances where the same pronoun is used but has different inflexions depending upon the verbs used in the sentence.

Case 1: ( First individual singular )

Example 1:

English sentence: I play football.

Parse Tree:

Marathi interlingual rendition ( After inflexion ) :

eh [ ksGrks QqVckWy++-

Example 2:

English sentence: I like Mangifera indicas.

Parse Tree:

Marathi interlingual rendition ( After Inflection ) :

eyk vkoMrks vkack-

Case 2: ( first individual plural )

Example 1:

English sentence: We are friends.

Parse Tree:

Marathi interlingual rendition ( After inflexion ) :

vkEgh vkgksr fe=-

Example 2:

English sentence: We need books.

Parse Tree:

Marathi interlingual rendition ( After inflexion ) :

vkEgkyk ikfgts iqLrd-

Case 3: ( Second Person Singular )

Example 1:

English sentence: What make you make?

Parse Tree:

Marathi interlingual rendition ( After inflexion ) :

dk ; rq djr vkgs

Example 2:

English sentence: What do you like?

Parse Tree:

Marathi interlingual rendition ( After inflexion ) :

dk ; rqyk vkoMra

Case 4: ( Second individual plural )

Example 1:

English sentence: You should make this.

Parse Tree:

Marathi interlingual rendition ( After inflexion ) :

rqEgh ikghts djk ; yk gs-

Example 2:

English sentence: You will acquire this.

Parse Tree:

Marathi interlingual rendition ( After Inflection ) :

rqEgkyk feGsy gs-

Case 5: ( Third individual singular )

Example 1:

English sentence: He lies.

Parse Tree:

Marathi interlingual rendition ( After inflexion ) :

rks [ kksVa cksyrks-

Example 2:

English sentence: He wants.

Parse Tree:

Marathi interlingual rendition ( After inflexion ) :

R ; kyk ikghts-

Case 6: – ( Third individual plural )

Example 1:

English sentence: They play cricket.

Parse Tree:

Marathi interlingual rendition ( After Inflection ) :

R [ ksGrkr fddsV-

Example 2:

English sentence: They need money.

Parse Tree:

Marathi interlingual rendition ( After Inflection ) :

R ; kauk ikfgts iSls-

In all the above instances, the first illustration gives the inflexion of pronouns harmonizing to the general inflexion regulations and the 2nd illustrations give the inflexion of pronoun harmonizing to the regulations defined in Table 5.

IMPLEMENTATION OF INFLECTION

For execution of the inflexion we need to hive away following information to the database.

Table Six

DICTIONARY FORMAT

English

word

Polonium

Tag

Gender

Tense

Multiplicity

Degree

Case

POS tickets are identified from parser.

Gender tickets are identified from word terminations or the gender of the word stored in a lexicon.

Tense of the sentence can find from Penn tickets that we get from the parser. Following table gives PENN ticket and it ‘s tense:

Table Seven

Geting THE TENSE FROM THE PENN TAGS

Penn_Tag

Tense

VB, VBG, VBP, VBZ

Present

VBD, VBN

Past

Mendelevium

Future

Multiplicity can besides be determined from Penn tickets. Following table gives PENN Tags and its multiplicity:

Table Eight

Geting THE MULTIPLICITY FROM THE PENN TAGS

Penn_Tag

Multiplicity

NN, NNP, VBD, VB, VBZ

Second

NNS, NNP

Phosphorus

The instance of the noun is determined on the footing of topic, object or prepositions.

The grade of the individual can be determined from the following tabular array:

Table Nine

Geting THE DEGREE DEPENDING UPON THE PERSON

Person

Degree

I, Me, My, Mine, We, Our, Us.

1

You, Your, Yours

2

He, She, It, They, His, Him, Her, Them, Their.

3

Using the above retrieved information, we can use assorted Inflection regulations given in the above subdivisions to acquire the right inflexion. The inflected words can so be mapped to the SVO construction of Marathi to acquire the right interlingual rendition.

Examples:

English Sentence:

He came to my house to run into Maya but she was non at that place.

Parse Tree:

Table Ten

RULES FOR INFLECTION

Eng_Word

Marathi_Lemma

Inflected_Word

Rules to acquire Inflected

He

rks

rks

_____

came

; s.ks

vkyk

Verb tabular array, 3rd individual, Masculine, Singular, Past Tense.

to

yk

my

ek & gt ; a

ekA- ; k

Nominative Singular. Hence no alteration.

house

? kj

? kjh

Case tabular array, Locative Singular.

to

yk

_____

_____

meet

HksV.ks

HksVk ; yk

Case tabular array, Dative Singular.

Maya

ek ; k

ek ; kyk

Case tabular array, Accusative Singular.

but

i.k

i.k

_____

she

Rh factor

Rh factor

_____

was

gksrh

uOgrh

_____

non

ukgh

_____

at that place

frFks

frFks

_____

Decision

In the field of Machine Translation for Indian Languages a great sum of work has been done bur for Marathi the research is limited. This paper focuses on the issue of English to Marathi Translation with proper Inflection. The chief aim of this paper is to give the elaborate description of the regulations required for inflecting the words.

Recognition

The writers would wish to thank MIT College of Engineering, Pune and Board of College and University Development ( BCUD ) , University of Pune for the grant for carry oning the research work for Multi-Lingual Machine Translation System under which the paper has been written.

July 24, 2017