Female At Higher Education In Cambodian History Education Essay

Harmonizing to the nose count which was conducted by the National Institute of Statistics of Cambodia in 2008, it was revealed that females accounted for 51 of Cambodias entire population. In 2009-2010 merely 17 % of Kampuchean adult females enrolled in graduate student grades ( MoEYS, 2011 ) . Why has these happened? What are the factors that influence this consequence? From my ain observation at the Royal University of Phnom Penh ( RUPP ) in the maestro grade in instruction ( MEd ) in cohort 6 ; I see clearly that merely 39 % in my schoolroom are adult females. Similarly, in cohort 7, which is a new cohort, enrolled in academic twelvemonth 2013 in the same plan merely 16 % of Kampuchean adult females enrolled in the station alumnus grade. It is clear that this is unevenness in figure of Kampuchean female pupils inscribing in station alumnus survey. This has long term effects for the development of Cambodia.

Overview of Female at Higher Education in Kampuchean History

Javaman seven epoch.

Kampuchean higher instruction has a drawn-out history but sporadic. Rany, Zain and Jamil ( 2012 ) stated that the first higher educational establishment was constructed in the period of Angkor Empire, which was a high-octane land in the Southeast Asia part in the twelfth century. They besides added that in that period, this state consisted of two chief universities situated in Preah Khan Temple ( Vat Cheysrey ) and Taprom temple ( Raja Vihear ) under the control of Andradevy, the qeen of Jayavarman VII ( 1181-1220 ) . Murray ( as cited in Santry, 2005 ) pointed out that an lettering recorded Queen Andradevy as the main instructor of the male monarch. This makes it is clear that females during this epoch accessed the higher instruction.

After the diminution of Angkor Empire in the fifteenth century, Khmer higher acquisition establishments were diminished and shut down due to war and invasion from the neighbouring

states such as Thailand and Vietnam ( Chendler, 2008 ) .

During the France associated state and colonisation.

In 1863, during the Gallic associated state and colonisation ; there were some schools and higher instruction establishments. Ayres ( 2000 ) maintained that most Kampuchean people learnt their cultural heritage through the state ‘s well-known Proverbs and expressions, traditional jurisprudence through verse forms, for case, the Reamker ( Khmer version of the Ramayana Indian narrative ) and common people narratives through word of oral cavity.

Four old ages after the Gallic took control of Cambodia ; the first school was built in which 40 pupils attended. All of the schools utilised Gallic as the linguistic communication of direction. In 1873, the earliest public schools in Phnom Penh, Kampong Cham, Kraties and Kampot were opened and the first preparation centre for colonial decision makers and officers was besides founded ( Masson & A ; Fergusso, 1997 ) . However, higher instruction was still absent, pupils could merely entree higher instruction if they were able to inscribe in French or Vietnamese universities. Surprisingly, in 1949, the National Institute of Juridical, Political and Economic Sciences ( NIJPES ) , was founded for Kampuchean bookmans who aimed to be civil retainers in the colonial authorities ( Ayres, 2000 ; Howard, 1967 & A ; Tully, 2002 ) .

The Sihanouk epoch ( 1953-1970 ) .

Between 1953 and 1969, Cambodia was under control of King Norodom Sihanouk, who promoted instruction from basic to third instruction. Perceptibly, seven higher educational establishments were established such as the National Institute for Law, Politics and Economics, the Royal Medical School, the Royal School for Public Administration, the National Institute of Pedagogy, the Faculty of Letters and Humanity Studies, the Faculty of Science and Technology, and the National School of Commerce ( Chhum, 1973 ) . Furthermore, nine public and esteemed universities emerged in provincial and municipal ownerships. The Buddhist University, a first university in this epoch, was opened in 1954 and proved spiritual surveies and Khmer linguistic communication surveies, and the Royal Khmer University later operated in 1960. Five old ages subsequently, six extra universities came out in 1965 consisting of the Royal Technical University ( RTC ) , the Royal University of Fine Arts ( RUFA ) , the Royal University of Kompong Cham ( RUKC ) , the Royal University of Takeo-Kampot ( RUTK ) , the Royal University of Agricultural Science ( RUAS ) , and the People’sA University ( PU ) ( Pit & A ; Ford, 2004 ) , A and in conclusion, the Royal University of Battambang ( RUBB ) which opened in 1967. This epoch was the period of turning of universities. However, the period I have been unable to happen informations about female registration rate because all informations may hold been destroyed during the civil war.

Lon Nol epoch ( 1970-1975 ) .

From 1970 to 1975 third instruction declined, because this period encountered societal and political challenges ensuing from the cold war, particularly, the influence of the political orientation of a new government which was covered by western thoughts of capitalist economy, republicanism and democracy ( Rany, Zain & A ; Jamil, 2012 ) . However, harmonizing to the Ministry of Education Youth and Sports web site, the entire registration in third instruction in this period was about 9,000 pupils. The largest figure at the University of Phnom Penh which had about 4,570 male pupils and more than 730 female pupils enrolled in eight sections such as letters and humanistic disciplines, jurisprudence and economic sciences, medical specialty, pharmaceutics, scientific discipline and engineering, commercial scientific discipline, teacher preparation, and higher instructor preparation. Many third instruction installations were been destructive and many academic staff escaped to the capital metropolis ( Can, 1991 ) .

Khmer Rouge government ( 1975-1979 ) .

This period was Cambodia under control of Pol Pot. All substructures were wholly ruined such as route, infirmary, pagoda peculiarly schools and other school installations. Not merely primary, secondary instruction but besides third instruction was destroyed in the period of Khmer Rouge government and it was predicted that about Kampuchean educational installations was wholly ruined and about 75 % of higher educational lectors and 96 % of university pupils were killed in race murder during 1975 to 1979. Furthermore, people who were intellectuals were selected for riddance. It believed that more than two million people have been killed during this period ( Pit & A ; Ford, 2004 ) .

Post-Pol Pot government ( 1979-1991 ) .

On January 1979, Democratic Kampuchea which was under control of Pol Pot was collapsed. The new authorities was known as People ‘s Republic of Kampuchea ( PRK ) was established. This authorities ( PRK ) started to reconstruct educational system by ask foring ex-professors and ex-teacher who survived from the Pol Pot government take parting in schools and higher acquisition establishment. The authorities undertook its policy of individuals with higher instruction teaches the 1s with lower instruction and individuals with lower instruction learn the 1s without instruction ( Hun, 2011 ) . In add-on, Tertiary instruction was considered the first precedences of this period, because it was regarded as a solution to decide crisis of deficiency of leaders and technicians in civilizations economic sciences and political relations ( Ayres, 2000a ) . Due to shortage of human resources, the ( PRK ) authorities intended to inscribe pupils every bit many as possible in order to develop human resources ( Vann, 2012 ) .

Harmonizing to Virak ( 2009 ) stated there were 6,509 pupils who were sent to foreign states to absorb new cognition between 1979 and 1989, between them, there were 1,426 females, tantamount to 22 % . This statistic illustrated that during this period female pupils accessed third instruction still limited. Therefore, Gender variability in Kampuchean higher instruction has a drawn-out history ; it means that it has merely taken topographic point in present twenty-four hours.

Problem Statement

Since Cambodia switched to a free market economic system in the early 1990s, higher instruction has played a important function in human resource development in the economic system and about all sectors. Higher instruction in Cambodia has expanded dramatically. Harmonizing to the Ministry of Education Youth and Sports, there were 44 universities and higher instruction institutes ( Department of Higher Education, 2005 ) ; and now there are 97 universities and higher instruction establishments ( MoEYS, 2012 ) . Furthermore, enrollment rates in undergraduate grades have besides increased well. Mak ( as cited in Walker, 2012 ) reported that in the academic twelvemonth 2008 to 2009, pupils enrolled in Kampuchean higher instruction establishments consisted of 136,156. In the academic twelvemonth 2010-2011, there were 173,264 unmarried man degree pupils ( 70,954 female undergraduate pupils, tantamount to 41 % ) ( MoEYS, 2011 ) . These figure showed that the figure of male and female pupil registrations were non far different. In contrast, the figure of male and female pupil registrations in maestro and doctor’s degree grade is far different.

The comparing tabular array of statistic on pupils ( Table 1 ) shows that the figure of female and male pupil registrations in maestro grades in 2009 combined entire 12,803 pupils, 2,258 were female equivalent to 17.6 % and 956 pupils, 53 of whom were female equivalent to 6 % were analyzing doctor’s degrees degree. The tabular array shows in 2001 that the sum of registrations is 12,887 pupils, 2,343 of whom was female tantamount to 18.18 % and 981 pupils, 55 of whom were female equivalent to 5.60 % analyzing doctorate grade. These show that female pupils in station alumnus and doctor’s degree grades are far less than work forces.


Comparison tabular array of pupil statistics from academic twelvemonth 2009-2010







Female %



Female %

Master Degree






















Doctor’s degrees






















Note: The Data was collected from MoEYS, Department of Higher Education and Department of Scientific Research, 2011.

Research Questions

In this survey I will research the undermentioned inquiries:

What are some factors that influence 4th twelvemonth under alumnus female pupils at university XXX non go on their surveies to post-graduate degree?

What factors or influences do twelvemonth 1and twelvemonth 4 female pupils at university XXX indentify as informing their determination either to or non to go on to post-graduate survey?

Significance of Study

One of the first bookmans on the connexions between gender and instruction, Brown ( as cited in Brock & A ; Hsieh, 2011, p 245 ) encapsulated the issue in characteristically direct manner: “ adult females are development and without adult females, no development ” . The significance of this survey will be to happen out the barriers and obstructions for female pupils to go on their surveies to post-graduate grade in order to portion their cognition to develop household and besides state.

Furthermore, the research determination and recommendation will besides supply female pupils more opportunities to carry through third instruction and heighten them to portion their cognition to better both life manner in household and society. Finally, the research determination may besides assist to cut down gender disparity in Kampuchean society by giving utile information to relevant sections and ministries in order to take measuring to work out these jobs.

Chapter Two

Literature Review


Southeasterly Asiatic states construction with multi images of gender spread in entree to higher instruction. In many states, females have been under-represented in higher instruction, but their representation has much better improved over clip. Berggren ( as cited in Lin, 2011 ) indicated that in belief of the limitations of gender function expectancy and societal norm, females are lower educational aspiration to prosecute third instruction than males. Harmonizing to Lee ( 1998 ) illustrated that female pupils made up merely 32 % of the sum higher instruction registration during 1994 in Indonesia. The Republic of Korea, Japan and the Pacific Islands have the best female gross third registration ratios, followed by Thailand, the People ‘s Republic of China and the Philippines. However, there were immense gender differences in Cambodia, Bhutan, Bangladesh, the Nepal ( Ramachandran, 2010 ) . Figure 1 shows the per centum of the female pupils accesses higher instruction in Asean states in 2010. This figure shows the per centum of female pupils have attended higher instruction are about balanced such as Brunei, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines and Singapore. Alternatively, Cambodia has still significant gender disparities. Particularly, female pupils in third instruction comprise merely approximately 35 % of entire registration. These gender disparities may be traced to earlier degrees of schooling. The dropout rates of misss in Cambodia are higher than male childs at all degrees of instruction, which limits the pool of female campaigners able to entree third instruction ( Velasco, 2004 ) .

Figure 1.

Percentage of females at third instruction in ASEAN states, 2007

Note: This Data are collected from EFA Global Monitoring Report 2010 ( UNESCO, 2011 ) .

Barriers to Access Higher Education

This subdivision examines some of the barrier and other factors which affect adult females go toing to higher instruction.

Fiscal barriers.

Sami ( 2009 ) ( as cited in World Bank, 2009 ) argued the surveies on higher instruction equity in developed states classify fiscal barriers in to three types: First the cost-benefit barrier, 2nd, the cash-constraint or liquidness barrier and the last, the internalized liquidness restraint or the debt antipathy barrier. Surveies on higher instruction equity in Southeast Asia states implicitly utilize those three types above. The surveies have merely analyzed how income degree impact adult females ‘s entree to third instruction. Brock and Hsieh ( 2011 ) demonstrated that household size is an issue in the more dependants there were in the place ; the more likely that place based work will be carried on. He was mentioning to the ability of a household to pay school fee in order to beef up the capacity of survival both from the immediate income coevals from place based work and from the possibility that some of the kids, whether male child or misss, may continue to more moneymaking employment as a consequence of educational success. In an old survey, conducted by Beswick and Boreham ( 1985 ) on the Australian system of third instruction highlighted and made some interesting connexions between parental attitudes and the presence or absence of fiscal aid for female pupils. Moore, ( 1987 ) stated that in general, adult females who accomplish and complete Australian third instruction seem to hold benefited more from external fiscal aid than from familial assistance.

Students from better economic backgrounds have better entree to higher instruction than hapless pupils. Ramachandran ( 2010 ) showed that some parents do non put in the instruction of their girls and in really hapless families, girlas are withdrawn from school. For illustration, a recent national economic study in Indonesia indicated that one 3.3 % of pupils from the lowest, 20 % income groups and merely 4.8 % enroll in universities. However, 30.9 % from the highest income households were enrolled in higher instruction ( Nizam, 2006 ) .

Family backgrounds.

Families play an indispensable function in directing their kids to schools. Childs are far more likely to go to university if one or both of their parents has completed a university grade. A recent Statistics Canada survey found that young person whose parents have at least some university experience are close to twice every bit likely to go to university as those whose parents had completed merely high school.

Parental instruction and household income background besides have positive effects on single pick to inscribe in higher instruction. It implies that parents with higher instruction or higher net incomes intend to construct better acquisition environments for kids. They have stronger willingness to pay for higher instruction than parents with lower instruction and income background ( Li & A ; Min, 2001 ) . Similar surveies on higher instruction in advanced states revealed that parental instruction or business impacts entree to higher instruction in East Asiatic states ( Finnie, Laporte & A ; Lascelles, 2004 ) . They besides found that household backgrounds tend to be a chief determiner of entree to higher instruction. Students whose parents are better educated or have professional businesss have better entree to higher instruction. Similarly, Budria ( as cited in Ogawa and Iimura, 2010 ) argued that parental degree of instruction is related to the kid ‘s pick of the type and length of his/her higher instruction.

Harmonizing to Becker ( 1981 ) , households invest in kids ‘s instruction, but are constrained by economic and educational resources of the households. They invest if they have the resources to pass. Li and Min ( 2001 ) found that more significantly, the significance of these factors applies to developed states like the United States of America and less developed states with different cultural or economic constructions.

Dinging ( 2007 ) found that pupils whose male parents have professional or administrative occupations and 1s who are from high income families have higher opportunity to come in higher instruction. However, Agadjanian and Liew ( 2005 ) stated that parental instruction has some significance impact on passage to tertiary in Malaysia. Harmonizing to Huang ( 2005 ) argued that male parent ‘s instruction accomplishment and business were decrepit negative impact on pupil academic achievement.

Cultural factors.

The under-representation of female pupils in higher instruction may emerge from cultural and societal factors. Females may hold unequal educational chances because of cultural barriers. For illustration, Indonesian households traditionally arrange their girls to acquire married every bit shortly as they finish primary school ( Suryadarma et al, 2006 ) . In China boy penchant is still prevailing, because Chinese civilization needs the boy to transport the household line of descent. Therefore, females are discriminated against and non offered equal instruction chances by their parents ( Wang, 2005 ) . Furthermore, another surveies found that households in Western Europe and North American have tended to prefer the attending of male kids instead than female kids in third instruction, peculiarly when a fiscal load is involved ( Moore, 1987 ) .

Many people who live in Southeast Asiatic states believe that females are more inferior than males are common. They have preconceived beliefs or thoughts of adult females ‘s personality traits, features, abilities and functions in society. Don ( 2001 ) argued that these beliefs are even reinforced in school text editions in which adult females are supposed to look after housekeeping and do manual work.

From my ain observation, some Kampuchean females believe that excessively much instruction such as station alumnus or alumnus grade will forestall them from a suited matrimony. It means that they will non happen a suited spouse. In Kampuchean society, adult females are apt to acquire married with work forces with higher educational achievement than themselves, while work forces are likely to be married to adult females with lower educational accomplishment than themselves. These prevent females from inscribing in higher instruction. Another cultural pattern that prevents some Kampuchean female from prosecuting third instruction is that when females finish their undergraduate grade ; they are anticipating to acquire married so they are involved in taking attention of their hubby and kids.

Female Student Aspiration to prosecute Higher Education

Aspiration gives the footing powers that enable people to prosecute success and it will impact persons in the hereafter to acquire successful or non. Students ‘ aspiration besides plays a important function in prosecuting higher degree of instruction. Lin ( 2011 ) found that there was many factors that reduced female pupils ‘ aspiration to prosecute third instruction such as parental and economic constrain attitude, female pupils themselves, traditional gender values.

Parents play a critical function in promoting their kids to prosecute higher instruction. Sewell and Shah ( 1968 ) indicated that parental encouragement seemed to hold strongest influence on third educational programs of female pupils. Furthermore, Mullent ( as cited in Lin, 2011 ) illustrated that higher educational and higher socio-economic position parents are likely to hold higher aspiration for their kids ‘s instruction. This enabled kids themselves to hold higher outlook for higher educational attainment. Nevertheless, Christie and Munro ( 2003 ) found that hapless educated and lower economic position parents tended to be lower outlook for their kids to prosecute third instruction. Because they were non well-understood to supply good advice to their kids, we compared to high-educated and higher socio-economic parents. Mullen, Goyette and Soares ( 2003 ) besides found that parents ‘ instruction and socio-economic position were important impact to their kids ‘s alumnus plan registration. These reveals that parental instruction and household socio-economic position are really closely associate to their kids ‘s aspiration.

Another factor that influences the female pupils ‘ aspiration to prosecute post-graduate or alumnus instruction is female pupils themselves. Harmonizing to Lin ( 2011 ) found that there were many grounds that resulted female pupils low outlook for third instruction. First, she found that female pupils did non pull with research work, while post-graduate grade was completed by making research, and this grade usually orientated to research occupation as good. Following, she found that female pupils were short of assurance in educational capableness that induced them low or nonexistent outlook for post-graduate grade. Finally, she found that female pupils were low outlook for higher instruction, because they were deficit of self-motivation for more surveies.

One more factor which affects the female pupils ‘ outlook to go on to third instruction is traditional gender values. Berggren ( 2006 ) stated adult females have been prepared from childhood to be caretakers for other members in household. This function is non merely completed in their childhood but besides continue to adult life when they get married. These adult females ‘s functions and answerabilities are the factors that minimize adult females ‘s aspiration to prosecute higher instruction peculiarly station alumnus grade ( Lin, 2011 ) .

Chapter Three


Qualitative research is a construction of enquiry that explores issues, phenomena in their natural scene and employs multi-methods to construe, understand, explicate and convey significance to them ( Anderson & A ; Arsenault, 1998 ) . This chapter describes the sampling and informations aggregation method. I plan to use to reply my research inquiries. I will depict the sampling method and its strength and restriction, followed by the informations aggregation method and its strength and restriction. Finally, I will discourse some of the ethical consideration in carry oning the research.

Sampling Method


In this research, I use convenience sample ; it is easy to roll up informations because I have personal connexion with the university. This research will be conducted at university XXX which I have been employed as the first twelvemonth talk at that place.

Strength of this trying method is that the research worker is able to choose any location where the research worker is easy to entree to respondents with utilizing pass more clip and much more money. However, restriction of this trying method is that the research findings can non be generalized to the whole female populations in all universities of the state.

Sampling of pupils.

Participants will be selected based on purposeful and convenience sampling. Harmonizing to Mcmillan ( 1996 ) stated that purposive sampling is a subdivision of peculiar elements from the population that will be representative or enlightening about the top.

The survey will focused on two chief groups of the female university pupils, one group comes from twelvemonth one female pupils and another comes from twelvemonth four female pupils. The participants will be 40 female first twelvemonth pupils and 60 female 4th twelvemonth pupils participate in this survey. This figure I assume that it accounts for at least 10 % of the entire figure of the female pupils in that university.

Strengths of this sampling method are the research workers select individuals, topographic points, or things that can supply the richest and most elaborate information to assist us reply our research inquiry ( Lodico, Spaulding & A ; Voegtle, 2010 ) . Furthermore, the research workers spend less time-consuming, less dearly-won and easy to administer the groups are selected.

However, Cohen, Manion and Morrison ( 2007 ) argued that the restriction of purposive sampling does non presume to stand for the wider population ; it is deliberately and unashamedly selective and biased. They added that it may non be representative and participants ‘ remarks may non be generalizable.

Furthermore, if the research workers do non respective this sort of purposive sampling used, can be extremely susceptible to researcher prejudice. The purposive sampling means that it can be difficult to explicate the representativeness of the sample. Furthermore, it can be non easy to convert the reader that the judgement you used to choose units to analyze was appropriate.

Data Collection Method


Lodico, Spaulding and Voegtle ( 2010 ) stated that a study or questionnaire is major tool or instrument which is used to roll up informations in research survey. Furthermore, a questionnaire is a information aggregation method which research workers are utilised to roll up informations with extremely efficient for a big figure of respondents, and it can be used of big figure of inquiries as good. Furthermore, it enables respondents to supply for single remarks and positions in their ain words ( Anderson & A ; Arsenault, 1998 ) .

However, Anderson and Arsenault ( 1998 ) besides stated that there are some restrictions of utilizing questionnaire as a information aggregation tool, for case respondents will non react because of questionnaire weariness that leads to non-response prejudice. In add-on, they besides indicated that it is really unsafe for participants if they do n’t understand the inquiries that leas to response prejudice.

In this survey, I use a questionnaire for appraising two groups of female pupils, one comes from twelvemonth one pupils and another one comes from twelvemonth four pupils. I will use a questionnaire to place female pupils ‘ grounds and factors which impact them to go on their survey to post-graduate grade. Further, the questionnaire besides identifies female pupils ‘ aspiration in transporting on their survey to post alumnus grade. The study will be conducted in order to roll up informations from 40 twelvemonth one female pupils in four categories and 60 twelvemonth four female pupils in six categories.

Ethical Issue

In order to avoid prejudice in roll uping informations, ethical consideration has been considered when I develop the sampling. This survey will be conducted to roll up informations from female pupils at a private university in Phnom Penh, I follow the undermentioned stairss.

To acquire entree to data aggregation, I have to acquire permission to make my survey from the curate of the university

To acquire entree to twelvemonth one and twelvemonth four female pupils, I have to acquire permission from talks that category.

Information will be obvious and transferred to participants by explicating the intent of the survey and the processs that will be employed.

At the terminal of the category, I go to category foremost ask permission from lector and so inquire females pupils for voluntary to finish my questionnaires.

I declare that all information which participants response in the questionnaire are confidential.

In order to avoid confounding or misinterpretation, all the inquiries will be translated in first linguistic communication.

July 29, 2017