Expository Essay on War Using Example from Tomorrow When the War Began and Poetry

H1N1 Medical Report on Swine Flu Table of Contents: Introduction……………………………………………………………. Pg. 3 Health Risks: Case Study One……………………………………………………….. Pg. 4 Case Study Two……………………………………………………….. Pg. 5 Variations of Health in People Who Wave the Same Virus……………………………………………………………………. Pg. 6 Preventative Measures………………………………………………. Pg. 7 Public Impact………………………………………………………….

Pg. 8 Recommendations……………………………………………………. Pg. 9 Conclusion…………………………………………………………… Pg. 10 Bibliography………………………………………………………….. Pg. 11 Appendix………………………………………………………………. Pg. 12 Introduction Honourable Paul Lucas, during 2009 and 2010 there was an outbreak of Influenza A H1N1, or colloquially known as ‘Swine Flu’. Influenza viruses belong to the family Orthomyxovirdae and are classified into three distinct types, influenza A, B and C.

Only influenza viruses that are under the category A and B are communicable among humans and are responsible for most cases of the seasonal flu. Hemagglutin (H) and neuraminidase (N) are proteins found in Influenza A and are used to further define subtypes of influenza (such as H1N1 or H5N1 [bird flu]). H1N1 contains mutated genes from the seasonal flu, an avian (bird) virus and a swine (pig) virus, hence the name ‘Swine Flu’. This mutation occurred because pigs can be infected with human influenza, avian virus and swine virus. If this happens simultaneously, genetic reassortment can occur, which is what led to the development of H1N1.

Influenza A H1N1 is spread much the same way as the seasonal flu, through air-born droplets caused by sneezing and coughing, touching infected objects and subsequently touch other areas of the body and transfer of bodily fluids. This report will outline two case studies and the medical risks H1N1 incurs on them and ways of treatment, it will also suggest possible ways to mitigate and prevent further outbreaks of the influenza A H1N1. Case study one The first case study presents a twenty-five year-old female, who is in her third trimester of pregnancy that has contracted H1N1.

Her symptoms (in order of severity) include vomiting, diarrhoea, fever, and aches and pains in her joints and muscles. These symptoms alone present the following medical risks. Firstly, dehydration which is due to the onset of diarrhoea and vomiting. This is because during periods of diarrhoea, peristaltic movement of the small and large intestine speeds up to release harmful bacteria and viruses that may be present in the gastrointestinal tract. This means that digested food spends less time in the large intestine, which can subsequently lead to dehydration, as the large intestine is where water is predominantly absorbed.

Vomiting can also lead to a lack of nutrients and energy entering the body. These nutrients, such as vitamin C, are vital for the upkeep of the body and are needed to help the immune system fight off viruses such as H1N1. Furthermore, a lack of energy entering the body means that cells cannot function at there normal metabolic rate, which subsequently leads to a weaker and more frail immune system. The fever that has been induced by the virus does not present any major medical difficulties. Pregnancy, however, adds a whole new realm of medical risk. It has been observed that female patients that are pregnant nd have contracted H1N1often experience sudden spontaneous expulsion of the fetus, even if pregnancy until this time had seemed unimpaired. Also, low oxygen saturation or respiratory failure whilst hospitalised with H1N1 may necessitate Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO). ECMO is a technique where blood is taken from the body either VV(venous-venous) where it is pumped around the body through a machine and bypasses the lungs or VA (venous-arterial) where blood is taken from a vein, oxygenated and pumped back to the body into an artery, taking over the function of both the heart and lung (see figure 1. ). If ECMO is needed during pregnancy, the fetus is generally aborted, as the period preceding the use of ECMO inotropes are generally employed which effectively kill the fetus. However, if ECMO was not required, studies suggest that obstetric outcomes were not adversely affected by influenza A H1N1. Treatment for a female seven months pregnant would often include a course of Oseltamivir. Case Study two Case study two presents a male baby of eighteen months. His symptoms include (in order of severity): fever, diarrhoea, mild vomiting and lack of appetite.

He has no previous or ongoing medical conditions. A major medical risk that can be brought on by a fever is febrile convulsions. Febrile convulsions occur when there is a sudden change in body temperature, or a high body temperature is present, and are very common among young children. This type of convulsion typically does not cause neurological harm, however during the convulsion the child could possibly harm itself by hitting itself against the ground. Brain damage from a high fever is also possible, but is generally uncommon; this will only occur if fever is over 42 degrees Celsius.

Dehydration, similar to case study one can occur due to diarrhoea and mild vomiting. Lack of energy can also occur as the baby has mild vomiting meaning insufficient nutrients would be absorbed by the baby. Due to this, minimal glucose would be reaching the babies cells to carry out cellular respiration and produce ATP (adenosine triphosphate) for the function of the cells. Treatment for babies would include 24mg of Oseltamivir every 12 hours at the onset of symptoms for approximately five days, or until symptoms wear off. Variations of health in people with the same virus

The health of different patients with the same virus differs for a number of reasons. This is mainly due to the health of patient before contracting the virus, which has a major effect on the way the body will handle the virus. If the body was in a poor condition before contracting H1N1, they will most likely encounter many difficulties or have worse symptoms throughout the duration of the virus. For example, if someone with HIV/AIDS had contracted influenza A H1N1 there is a very high likelihood that they will not survive.

Those people who have HIV/AIDS have a weak immune system (hence the name Acquired Immune deficiency Syndrome), meaning their bodies cannot fight off the virus as well as others could. Also, someone of old age would have a more difficult time fighting the virus off as they would have a weaker immune system from their many years of life. The same goes with fit and unhealthy people. A fit person will most likely fight the virus off more easily than an unhealthy person. Preventative measures

To control further outbreaks among the community, three suggestions have been made. Firstly, to prevent further outbreaks of H1N1, vaccination programs should be put into place. High-risk community members (such as the elderly, doctors and the young) should be vaccinated for influenza A H1N1. These vaccinations will help prevent further outbreaks of Swine Flu among those in the community who are most vulnerable. This will be put into place by supplying extra vaccinations to GPs and setting up mobile clinics such as vans to make it more accessible.

Furthermore, those who are in close contact with those who have H1N1 and have not had the vaccine or their bodies have not built up an immunity from the vaccine (usually two weeks) should use chemoprophylaxis. A Hand sanitiser initiative should additionally be put into place. Hand sanitisers should be placed in areas where people have much contact with others and where good mediums for germs to fester are, such as toilets, schools, banks and supermarkets. This will give members of the community the ability to be able to cleanse their hands, which is the most likely place for germs to be carried.

Likewise, educating the community to be more aware of H1N1 and to be more hygienic will help prevent an outbreak of H1N1. Posters, websites e. t. c. should be put up around the community outlining the need for good personal hygiene. This will make community members aware of the importance of personal hygiene and how to avoid contracting H1N1. These preventative measures should help reduce and prevent further outbreaks of H1N1. Public Impact: The Influenza A H1N1 has had a profound (and still has) on Australian society, from a number of aspects. From a schooling perspective, a number of schools closed because of an H1N1 outbreak.

From a community point of view, there have been negative affects on tourism, as many people did not wish to travel because of the risk of contracting Swine Flu. For example QANTAS lost millions of dollars through cancelled flights due to H1N1. Also, many people died due to this pandemic, leaving many families possibly distraught. Influenza A H1N1 also had an extreme effect on the Australian Health System, with a 20% influx of patients into ICU and an even further demand for general practitioners. Overall, as of October 2009, there were 432 deaths and 118,702 confirmed cases of H1N1 in Australia.

Recommendation: The best way to mitigate and prevent further outbreaks of Influenza A H1N1 is to instigate a hand sanitiser initiative alongside an education program on personal hygiene and H1N1. Hand sanitisers should be placed in areas where people have much contact with others and where good mediums for germs to fester are, such as toilets, schools, banks and supermarkets. This will give members of the community the ability to be able to cleanse their hands, which is the most likely place for germs to be carried. Educating the community on personal hygiene will help reinforce the hand sanitiser initiative.

This will most definitely help prevent further outbreaks of H1N1 and an improved personal hygiene among Brisbane. A vaccination program will not only be expensive, but may not be welcomed among the community, as there are many people who have there doubts about the vaccine. Conclusion: Similar to the Spanish Flu that struck the human race in the final months of WWI, Influenza A H1N1 can be considered one of the worlds worst pandemics. Now, swine flu is treated by health authorities as the seasonal flu, even to the point where it has infiltrated many childcare centers and state schools without panic.

Parents have been assured that H1N1 – which sent the world into pandemic two years ago – is one of the most common flu viruses and is no more contagious than the seasonal flu. However, it is feared among the medical and science community that a new strain of H1N1 will appear. According to an MIT study, a single mutation of the H1N1 genome will make it much more aggressive, contagious and relentless than the strain seen in 2009. The genome in question is often prone to mutation among Influenza A viruses. It is unclear what will take place in the future of H1N1. Bibliography: Bowkalow S, Bruare M, Gro? W, Schlue? ner E. 2011) Sever H1N1-infection during pregnancy. Jena University Hospital. Germany. Accessed on: 26/08/2011 available at: http://www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/pubmed/21748316 Courouble P, Geukens P, Laarbaui F, Beauloye C, Van Caenegem O, (2011). Adult respiratory distress syndrome caused by 2009 H1N1 Influenza during pregnancy: success for ECMO both mother and child. Cliniques University St. Luc. , Brussels. Accessed on: 26/08/2011 Available at: http://www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/pubmed/21848176 Department of Human Services, (2008). Febrile Convulsions in Children. Victorian Government. Victoria. Accessed on: 26/08/2011 Available at: http://www. ealth. vic. gov. au/edfactsheets/febrile-convulsions-kids. pdf Fever, (2007). Medline Plus. USA. Accessed on: 26/08/2011. Available at: http://www. nlm. nih. gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003090. htm Goldman J, Fekete T, Erdelding J, (2009). MKSAP® 15: Infectious Disease. American College of Physicians. United States. 80, 81. Hegarty, A (2011) Swin Flu No Big Deal once deadly infection now part of seasonal flu. The Advertiser. Adelaide. Influenza A Virus, Subtype H1N1; MIT scientists identify new H1N1 mutation that could allow virus to spread more easily (2011) Obesity, Fitness and Wellness Week.

O’Leary M, Chappell J, Stratton C, Cronin R, Taylor M, Tang Y, (2010) Complex Febrile Seizures Followed by Complete Recovery in an Infant with High-Titer 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infection. Vanderblit University School of Medicine. Tennessee. Accessed on: 26/08/2011 Available at: http://www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/pmc/articles/PMC2953069/? tool=pmcentrez Appendix Figure 1. 0: ECMO (Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation) circuit. Shown is VA(Venous-Arterial) where blood is oxygenated and pumped, bypassing both the heart and long.

November 30, 2017