————————————————- Part A 1) Identify the physical, cognitive, social and emotional features of the child at that point in time. 2) Use relevant developmental theories and research to explain and evaluate the development of the child in these four domains Lana Markovic turned 2 years old on the 5th of March 2010; she is currently attending day care to prepare her for her schooling years. Lana lives with both parents who are expecting another child in 4-5 months.
Physical Features: * Lana is physically fit as she is currently undertaking swimming lessons and enjoys physical activity such as running and playing with a ball. Lana is a generally healthy toddler; this is evident through the absence of any long term illnesses or conditions. However, throughout the year, Lana has recently had colds, ear aches and stomach aches which are possibly due to being exposed to other children in the day care centre. By the age of 2m a toddler can hop run and throw and catch a ball (Cratty 1986, Malina & Bouchard 1991, Haywood & Getchell 2005) Lana’s gross motor skills are generally typical for her age however vary somewhat from slightly below average (climbing) to slightly above average (throwing and catching a ball). Lana’s skills are developing in accordance with the growth of her cerebellum which controls the bodily movements and enables Lana to increase her gross motor skills (Berk 2008) * Throughout the year, Lana showed goals of becoming potty trained and made it to the potty 60% of the time.
At 2 years and 6 months, Lana was potty trained and rarely had any accidents. * Lana is above average in her fine motor skills (Cratty 1986, Malina & Bouchard 1991, Haywood & Getchell 2005) this is evident as she is able to copy shapes with a pencil and work with picture puzzles. This supports Piaget’s theory which stated that children reflect on what is around them through their hands and eyes. Cognitive Features: * According to Bauer, A child’s ability to recall actions and events improves greatly in the second year of their life (Bauer 2002 & Bauer 2006) Lana’s memory is developing in accordance to her age as she can emember recent experiences and provide simple descriptions of what happened such as a trip to the petting zoo. * Lana has become good at solving problems that she plans out in her head such as how to get to toys that are out of reach. Piaget states that toddlers build schemes through direct interaction with the environment (Berk 2008); this is evident through Lana’s development of solving problems that require more than two steps. Lana is also able to find objects that are hidden; this is explained through Piaget’s mental representation theory that occurs from 18months – 2 years.
Lana finds hidden objects through her mental ‘images’ allowing her to solve object permanence problems (Berk 2008) * Lana’s communication skills are developing as she is beginning to make the transition from ‘word-gesture’ combinations to ‘telegraphic’ sentences (Berk 2008). Lana’s vocabulary is expanding and she has a strong desire to learn new words, her comprehension is in the average range for her age and she is beginning to show more consistent use in conversational speech of grammatical markers e. . past tense and plural. * Lana is able to identify her gender now and has begun to categorise behaviour and objects suited to boys and girls. This is suitable for her age as children the age of 2 generally begin to categorise by inner traits and characteristics rather than visual characteristics (Mandler 2004) Social Features: * Lana has difficulties understanding the perspective of others.
This is explained in Piaget’s preoperational theory which states that children are ‘egocentric’ and think of everything only as it relates to them and they are unable to see or acknowledge the perspective of others (Berk 2008) * Lana prefers to play with girls but also gets along well with the boys. At this age “children acquire many gender-linked beliefs and preferences and tend to play with peers of their own sex” (Berk 2008) this indicates that Lana’s behaviour is typical for her age. * Lana is hesitant when meeting a new group of children and spends a few minutes watching them before she joins in.
This behaviour is expected of a toddler as Mildred Parten concluded that social development proceeds with a sequence, beginning with non-social activity where the individual is an observer as Lana is at first, the child then moves onto parallel play and then participates in cooperative play as Lana does after she observes the others (Parten 1932) this evidence indicates that Lana’s behaviour is expected. Emotional Features: * Lana tackles problems readily and with a positive attitude and is persistent in the face of failure. Lana is developing new emotions, she has a shy smile when she is asked to be in photographs and looks guilty when she breaks something and embarrassed when she has a potty accident. These new emotions are explained by Bandura and linked to the development of Lana’s ‘ego’ part of the brain and her growth in self-awareness (Berk 2008) * Lana is generally calm and easy going, however, she has instances where she demonstrates ‘instrumental aggression’ (Berk 2008) when there is a toy she particularly likes and has to be reminded to share. ) Use theory and research to explain how the factors of family, school, peers and social context have lead to the uniqueness of the chid at this point in time Lana lives with both her parents and enjoys spending time with both her Mum and Dad. According to Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory, the child is shaped by its surrounding environment and the immediate relationships which they form with their care givers (Berk 2008).
A child’s ‘mesosystem’ has a critical impact on the child’s personality and development (Bronfenbrenner 2005) Due to Lana’s close relationship with both parents, her secure attachment allows her to interact with others as “attachment to the caregiver has profound implications for the child’s feelings of security and capacity to form trusting relationships” (Bowlby 1969) Lana is at a critical age where her social skills are developing and as a result of her secure attachment, she is able to share a close bond with her peers. Lana’s school environment is a large factor in her mesosystem which helped to shape who she is.
When Lana turned 2, she had to move to a new day care centre, this prepared Lana for changes which she is to expect regularly in life. This further illuminates how “important life events such as the birth of a sibling, the beginning of school, a move to a new neighbourhood, or parents’ divorce, modify existing relationships between children and their environment, producing new conditions that affect development” (Berk 2008) such as the move which Lana experienced. Lana spends quality time with her parents and enjoys going on trips with her Dad to the petting farm, museum and park.
These interactions have a positive unique impact on Lana which will enable her to be well developed intellectually as she is being exposed to many educational experiences which allow her to grow physically, cognitively, socially and emotionally. It is critical for a Lana’s parent to arrange consistent activities which stimulate language and knowledge (Bradley & Caldwell 1982) such as the previous activities, to ensure that her environment is altering and she is able to gain new experiences from each change which occurs and understand the world around her and shape her own unique perspective.
Due to Lana’s social context, she spends more time involved in conversations with adults and participating in educational play than children who come from an Eastern background (berk 2008). As a result of her unique environment, Lana has an individual way of understanding her surroundings and interacting with others which differs from her peers. Word Count: 1189 ————————————————- Part B 1. Make 5 well selected specific recommendations for those charged with the education or care of that child so that they can understand and accommodate this child’s characteristics.
Justify each recommendation using relevant theory and research Recommendation One: Lana’s Parents should talk through the steps in solving problems, model persistence in problem solving and expose Lana to more hands-on learning activities e. g. the children’s science museum. Bandura’s theory explains that a child is selective in what they imitate (Berk 2008). Therefore if Lana’s parent’s model positive approaches to problem solving then Lana will watch them engage in self-praise and imitate them which will allow her to develop her personal standards and gain belief in her abilities enabling her to succeed in problem solving.
Lana’s Zone of Proximal development (Vigovsky 1962) will increase as she is first aided by her parents to solve problems and her ability to solve the problem will exceed what Lana would have achieved alone enabling her to further develop her cognitive skills. Recommendation Two: Parents should seek out more group experiences for Lana to participate in to develop her social skills and encourage sharing etc. This is supported by Erickson’s theory as he believed that one of the main elements of child growth is the development of the ego identity.
According to Erickson an individual’s ego identity changes due to different experiences and interactions an individual has with others (Berk 2008). As Lana needs to learn how to share and build on her social skills, by interacting with others she is able to face new situations and interactions and build on her ego identity to gain self awareness and an understanding to respect others. Recommendation Three: Carers should present Lana with more complex construction activities such as making things out of sets of building blocks or interlocking blocks, train tracks etc.
According to Vygotsky with help from adults children can achieve what they are unable to achieve alone (Berk 2008). Therefore it is critical for Lana’s carer to ‘scaffold’ and adjust their level of help according to Lana’s performance with the construction activities which will enable her to be able to work independently in the future. Recommendation Four: Parents should give Lana plenty of opportunities to play indoor and outdoor activities and games of all types. Piaget recognised the importance of make believe play for children to reinforce and apply newly acquired skills in his preoperational stage (Berk 2008).
By giving Lana opportunities to play, she will be able to make sense of her environment through actions and interactions she has with the other children which will enable Lana to develop her social and cognitive skills. Piaget also stated that “Play becomes less self-centred” as children start to understand that the ‘agents and recipients’ of make believe actions can involve others and be independent of themselves (McCune, 1993). This will also be beneficial for Lana as she will be able to learn to respect the opinions of others. Recommendation Five:
Carers should try to engage Lana’s attention in activities for longer periods of time, to gradually build up her tolerance for school type activities. As Lana tends to get easily distracted, it is important that her attention is sustained. It is important that this recommendation is carried out as a longer attention span will allow Lana to focus her mind on completing a goal and enable her to complete activities which require her to focus her attention on obtaining the correct answer (Ruff & Cappozoli 2003). Word Count: 492 ————————————————- References * Bauer, P. J. (2002).
Long-term recall memory: Behavioural and neuro-developmental changes in the first 2 years of life. Current directions in Psychological Science, 137-141 * Bauer, P. J. (2006). Event memory. In D. Kuhn & R. Siegler (Eds. ), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 2. Cognition, perception and language (6th ed. , pp. 373-425). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. * Berk, L. E. (2008) Infants, Children and adolescents (6th edn. ) Pearson Education. * Bradley, R. H. , & Caldwell, B. M. (1982). The consistency of the home environment and its relation to child development. International Journal of Behavioural Development. 445-465. * Bronfenbrenner, U. Ed. ). (2005). Making human beings human. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. * Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment and loss: Vol. 1. Attachment. New York. Basic Books. * Cratty, B. J. (1986). Perceptual and motor development in infants and children (3rd edn. ) Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. * Oesterreich, L. , Holt, B. , & Karas, S. (1995) Reprinted with permission from National Network for Child Care – NNCC. lowa family child care handbook [Pm 1541] (pp. 198-199). Ames, IA: Iowa State University Extension. Retrieved 18th April from http://www. nncc. org/Child. Dev/ages. stages. 18m. 24m. html#anchor298509 * Mandler, J.
M. (2004). Thought before language. Trends in Cognitive Sciences. New York: Oxford university press. * McCune, L. (1993). The development of play as the development of consciousness. New directions for child development. 67-79. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. * Parten, M. (1932). Social participation among preschool children. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 243-269. * Ruff, H. A. , & Capozzoli, M. C. (2003). Development of attention and distractibility in the first 4 years of life. Developmental Psychology. * Vygotsky, L. S. (1962). Thought and language. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. (Original work published 1934)