Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824 Introduction In 17 March 1824, the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824, which was also known as the Treaty of London, was signed by Hendrik Fagel and Anton Reinhard Falck for the Dutch, George Canning and Charles Watkin WIlliams Wynn for the UK. The purpose for signing the treaty was to address the issues faced when the British inhabits the Dutch properties during the Napoleonic Wars. The treaty was signed in London without the consent of local rulers. Historical Background
Before the treaty was signed, there were conflicts between the British and the Dutch as they fought for trade monopoly in Southeast Asia. In 1819, a settlement on the Malaya Peninsular called Singapore was established by a British named Sir Stanford Raffles. As a result, it had drawn away much trade from Dutch ports which worsen the rivalry between the British and the Dutch. The Dutch, wanting the British to leave Singapore, had declared that the treaty signed by Raffles and The Sultan of Johore was invalid.
Additional to the current issue, the Dutch had doubts regarding their rights in British India and their former establishment which also becoming a point of contention between Batavia and Culcutta. In 1820, by demand from the British merchant, who was interested in the Far East, negotiations with the Dutch was carried out to clarify the situation in Southeast Asia. Terms of the Treaty The terms of the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824 includes: The British to be provided with trade access with the Maluku Islands, especially with Ambon, Banda and Ternate.
The Dutch to surrender their settlements on the Indian sub-continent and also to give up any rights related to them. Besides, the Dutch also handed in the city and fort of Melacca to the British. On the other hand, the factory of Fort Marlborough in Bencoolen and all of the British property on the island of Sumatra were surrendered to the Dutch. In short, after the treaty was signed, Bencoolen and Indonesia belongs to the Dutch and Melacca, Singapore, and Penang belongs to the British. Outcome of the Treaty
As a result of signing the Anglo-Dutch Treaty, the Malay Archipelago was legitimately divided into Dutch and British influence. Malaya was ruled by the British and Dutch East Indies was ruled by the Dutch, both which are now known as Malaysia and Indonesia respectively. The Anglo-Dutch Treaty also caused the Johor-Riau Empire to end, separating Johor which now belonged to the British and the island of Riau ruled by the Dutch. After the treaty, British formed what was known as the Straits Settlement in 1829, consisting of Penang, Melacca and Singapore.
Pirate activities within the states were able to be eliminated as the British began to pay attention on the Malay states. The treaty did not really end the rivalry. British claimed that Dutch agents sometimes invaded their territories. During the 1840s and 1870s, seeing that the treaty did not define the position of the island of Borneo, the British took control over parts of Sabah and Sarawak. This eventually leads to protestant from the Dutch.